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Chapter 1 Ten Themes In The Study Of Life

Chapter 1 Ten Themes In The Study Of Life

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Chapter 1 Ten Themes In The Study Of Life

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  1. Chapter 1Ten Themes In The Study Of Life

  2. Hierarchy of Organization • Atoms • Molecules • Organelles • Cells • Tissues • Organs • Systems • Organism • Population • Community • Ecosystem • Biome • Biosphere • Ecosphere

  3. Emergent Properties • Order – tendency to self organize • Reproduction – biogenesis • Growth and development • Energy utilization • Response to the environment • Homeostasis – self regulation • Evolutionary adaptation

  4. With each step upward in the hierarchy of biological order, novel properties emerge that were not present at the simpler levels of organization. “The whole is greater than the sum of its parts.”

  5. How do we seek understanding? • Reductionism – reducing complex systems to simpler components • Holism – Study the entire system to truly understand it

  6. The Cell Theory • 1. All living things are composed of cells • 2. All cells come from other cells • 3. Cells are the units of structure and function

  7. Two Major Kinds of Cells • Prokaryotic – first cell • Eukaryotic – true cell

  8. E.M. of Prokaryotic Cells

  9. DNA Basics • DNA is the substance of genes • Double helix • 4 Bases (Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, Thymine • Self-replicating molecule • Changes over time • All forms of life employ essentially the same genetic code

  10. Organisms Are Open Systems That Interact Continuously With Their Environments. • Living things both alter and are changed by their environment • Materials are recycled • Energy is lost as heat and not recycled

  11. Energy Flow In The Ecosystem

  12. Living Systems Are Regulated Many Biological Processes Are Self -Regulating Through “Feedback” Mechanisms

  13. Negative Feedback Positive Feedback

  14. Evolution, Unity, And Diversity The Evolutionary Connections Among All Organisms Explain the Unity and Diversity of Life.

  15. The Three Domains of Life

  16. “Descent With Modification”

  17. Connections • Observation #1– Individual variation • Observation #2 – Struggle for existence • Inference – Differential reproductive success or “Natural Selection” Natural Selection Is An Editing Process

  18. The Process Of Science “Science Is A Way Of Knowing”

  19. Idealized Scientific Method Inductive Reasoning

  20. Hypothetico-deductive Reasoning “If…then” Logic

  21. “Fishing” For Answers

  22. Theories Have Broad Explanatory Power Theories Are Comprehensive