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Chapter 1: The “ Discovery of America ”

Chapter 1: The “ Discovery of America ”. Why did Europeans want a water route to Asia?. Land route was too long and dangerous. Trade for: Silk, gold, and spices. What were Columbus ’ Plans?. Born in Genoa, Italy (port city) Grew up reading Marco Polo ’ s visit to China.

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Chapter 1: The “ Discovery of America ”

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  1. Chapter 1: The “Discovery of America”

  2. Why did Europeans want a water route to Asia? • Land route was too long and dangerous. • Trade for: Silk, gold, and spices.

  3. What were Columbus’ Plans? • Born in Genoa, Italy (port city) • Grew up reading Marco Polo’s visit to China. • Believed the world was round – able to reach the Far East by sailing west. • Had difficulty finding $ for the trip – viewed as a suicide mission. • Finally, Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand of Spain gave him $ - “Enterprise of the Indies”

  4. What was his trip like? • Left Spain in August, 1492. • 3 ships – Nina, Pinta, and Santa Maria • Sailed for over 3 months – a mutiny nearly broke out • Promised to turn back in 3 days if no land was found. • Finally, on October 12th, 1492, land was spotted!

  5. What was his trip like continued… • Columbus named the land San Salvador meaning “Holy Savior.” • He named the people “Indians” – believed he was in the Indies. • Returned with gold and “captives” • Died believing he had gone to Asia – even after four trips to Americas.

  6. Who followed Columbus’ trip? • Spain sent Conquistadors to explore. • Had 3 goals: Gold, God, and Glory.

  7. What did the Conquistadors discover? • Three “Indian” Civilizations existed in New World • Maya – Lived in Central America - Built giant pyramids - had gold jewelry 2. Inca – Lived in Peru (Andes Mountains) Defeated by Pizarro - Bee-hive society - Giant temples filled with gold - first to grow potato, tomato, and beans 3. Aztec – Lived in Mexico (Defeated by Cortez) - pyramids filled with gold - Warrior society -> Human sacrifice and cannibalism

  8. Peaceful Coexistence? • When the two societies met, violence erupts • Spanish win due to better technology and disease. - Iron swords - Guns - Horses - Armor • Indians treated like slaves.

  9. Other Famous Explorers? • Leif Erickson – Viking who discovered Canada in 1001. (never colonized or brought back riches.) • Ameriqo Vespucci – cartographer of New World -> later named after him. • Balboa – first European to see Pacific Ocean • Ferdinand Maqellan – First to sail around the globe. (died in the Philippines)

  10. Explorers Continued… • Ponce DeLeon – searched present day Florida for Fountain of Youth • Coronado – searched southwest for 7 Cities of Gold (found Grand Canyon) • Desoto – discovered Mississippi River • John Cabot – First English explorer (looked for northwest passage) • Jacque Cartier – First great French explorer (focused on St. Lawrence and Canada)

  11. How was the New World Colonized? • Spanish set up the Ecomienda System. • Indians were forced to work on farms/mines. • In exchange taught Catholicism. • Economic Policy -> Mercantilism • Make the “Mother Country” rich through cheap -> gold, materials, etc… But, it all changed in 1588 - Spanish Armada sank -> end of Spain’s power

  12. How did England Increase its Power? • Queen Elizabeth (Virgin Queen) strengthened Navy - Created the Sea Dogs -> Francis Drake - Essentially just Pirates

  13. England Colonizes • Roanoke Island – First attempt at colony. • Walter Raleigh led settlers, then returned to England. • Upon returning, the colony vanished. • Called “Lost Colony.”

  14. Continued • England’s first permanent colony(1607)---Jamestown • John Smith led men in search of “gold” • Not prepared to farm or hunt • Winter of 1609-10-StarvingTime • 440 of 500 men died Finally succeeded after growing tobacco led by John Rolfe (Pocohantas) Thus, Virginia was created House of Burgesses was elected gov Start of the Revolution?

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