what s the matter n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
What’s the Matter? PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
What’s the Matter?

play fullscreen
1 / 149

What’s the Matter?

205 Views Download Presentation
Download Presentation

What’s the Matter?

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Interest Grabber Section 2-1 What’s the Matter? • All of the materials around you are made up of matter. You are made up of matter, as are the chair you sit on and the air you breathe. • 1. Give an example of solid matter. • 2. Give an example of liquid matter. • 3. Give an example of gaseous matter. • 4. Is all matter visible? • 5. Does all matter take up space?

  2. Section Outline Section 2-1 • 2–1 The Nature of Matter A. Atoms B. Elements and Isotopes 1. Isotopes 2. Radioactive Isotopes C. Chemical Compounds D. Chemical Bonds 1. Ionic Bonds 2. Covalent Bonds 3. Van der Waals Forces

  3. An Element in the Periodic Table Section 2-1 6 C Carbon 12.011

  4. Individual substances, Substance which cannot be broken down or subdivided by ordinary chemical means. Pure substances made up of only one type of atom Elements

  5. Matter Matter Anything that has mass and takes up space (volume). All matter is made up of atoms.

  6. Periodic Table, Biological Essentials

  7. ATOMS The small units of matter 2 major Parts Nucleus (Protons+Neutrons) Electron cloud Atoms are smaller than cells

  8. Structure of the Atom Structure of an atomElectron CloudNucleus

  9. Nucleus +Found in the center of an atom. +Contains : protons (+ charge) neutrons (neutral charge) +The nucleus has an overall positive charge(+). http://www.purchon.com/chemistry/atoms.htm

  10. Electron Cloud (shells) --Found outside of the nucleus. --Made solely of electrons --Has a negative charge(-). http://www.purchon.com/chemistry/atoms.htm

  11. Protons • Located in the nucleus. • Positively (+)charged • subatomic particles.

  12. Electrons Negatively (-) charged subatomic particles. http://www.purchon.com/chemistry/atoms.htm

  13. Atomic # Atomic Number The number of protons found in an Atom AKA the proton number Helps you locate an element on the periodic table.

  14. Identify the following for each of the elements listed. Do Now : ____Protons ____Neutrons _____Electron _____Atomic Mass Try to draw the carbon atom showing the electron levels! 12 C 6

  15. Identify the following for each of the elements listed. 35 Cl 17 12 C 6 ____Protons ____Neutrons _____Electron _____Atomic Mass 23 NA 11

  16. 31 P 15 ____Protons ____Neutrons _____Electron _____Atomic Mass 16 O 8 209 Bi 83

  17. COMPOUNDS Dihydrogen Monoxide Conspiracy??? Current allegations suggest that the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) may be conspiring to cover up the whole DHMO issue. Attempts by DHMO researchers to elicit comment from the EPA regarding the possible coverup were either ignored or dodged, leading researchers to infer the alleged cover-up. http://www.circus.com/~no_dhmo/ http://www.dhmo.org/coverup.html

  18. COMPOUNDS A COMBINATION OF DIFFERENT ELEMENTS THEY ARE MADE UP OF 2 OR MORE DIFFERENT KINDS OF ATOMS EXAMPLES: CO2, H2O, & C6 H12O6

  19. Inorganic Compounds Inorganic Compounds H O • Any compound that does not contain the elements carbon and hydrogen is inorganic. • Examples: • carbon dioxide • calcium carbonate • water • salts • Phosphates • bases and certain acids 2 CO 2 CaCO 3 HCI

  20. The Electron Shells (___e- ) P=___ N=___ (___e- )

  21. The Electron Shells (___e- ) (___e- ) (___e- ) P=___ N=___

  22. Ions What is an Ion? A positively or negatively charged atom.

  23. Isotope An Isotope is?

  24. Ionic Bonds Page 57 in text

  25. Ionic Bonds Page 57 in text

  26. Covalent Bonding Hydrogen atoms only need two electrons in their outer level to reach the noble gas structure of helium. Once again, the covalent bond holds the two atoms together because the pair of electrons is attracted to both nuclei.

  27. Covalent Bonding Page 56 in text

  28. Covalent Bonding

  29. Covalent Bonding

  30. Diatomic Molecules • Atoms of the same element some-times • form covalent bonds with each other. • Hydrogen, H2 • Oxygen, O2 • Nitrogen • Chlorine

  31. Figure 2-2 Isotopes of Carbon Section 2-1 Nonradioactive carbon-12 Nonradioactive carbon-13 Radioactive carbon-14 6 electrons 6 protons 6 neutrons 6 electrons 6 protons 7 neutrons 6 electrons 6 protons 8 neutrons

  32. Figure 2-3 Ionic Bonding Section 2-1 Sodium atom (Na) Chlorine atom (Cl) Sodium ion (Na+) Chloride ion (Cl-) Transfer of electron Protons +11 Electrons -11 Charge 0 Protons +17 Electrons -17 Charge 0 Protons +11 Electrons -10 Charge +1 Protons +17 Electrons -18 Charge -1

  33. Figure 2-3 Ionic Bonding Section 2-1 Sodium atom (Na) Chlorine atom (Cl) Sodium ion (Na+) Chloride ion (Cl-) Transfer of electron Protons +11 Electrons -11 Charge 0 Protons +17 Electrons -17 Charge 0 Protons +11 Electrons -10 Charge +1 Protons +17 Electrons -18 Charge -1

  34. Interest Grabber Section 2-2 Water, Water Everywhere • If you have ever seen a photograph of Earth from space, you know that much of the planet is covered by water. Water makes life on Earth possible. If life as we know it exists on some other planet, water must be present to support that life.

  35. Interest Grabber continued Section 2-2 • 1. Working with a partner, make a list of ten things that have water • in them. • 2. Exchange your list for the list of another pair of students. Did your lists contain some of the same things? Did anything on the other list surprise you? • 3. Did either list contain any living things?

  36. Section Outline Section 2-2 • 2–2 Properties of Water A. The Water Molecule 1. Polarity 2. Hydrogen Bonds B. Solutions and Suspensions 1. Solutions 2. Suspensions C. Acids, Bases, and pH 1. The pH Scale 2. Acids 3. Bases 4. Buffers

  37. Do Now:1. “Get ready for class”2. How long can you survive without food and water? HW: Webquest

  38. Do Now:1. “get ready for class”2. How long can you survive without food and water? • Food 30-40 days • Water 5 days

  39. Water is important • It makes up 66-75% of your body • 75% of Americans are chronically dehydrated. • 37% of Americans, the thirst mechanism is so weak that it is often mistaken for hunger. • Even MILD dehydration will slow down ones metabolism as much as 5%. • Lack of water is the #1 trigger of daytime fatigue. (If you feel tired some morning, try drinking a pint of pure water....) • research indicates that 8-10 glasses of water a day could significantly ease back and joint pain for up to 80% of sufferers. • A mere 2% drop in body water can trigger fuzzy short memory, trouble with basic math, and difficulty focusing on the computer screen or on a printed page. • According to some nutritionists, drinking 5 glasses of water daily decreases the risk of colon cancer by 45%, plus it can slash the risk of breast cancer by 79%, and one is 50% less likely to develop bladder cancer.

  40. 2–2 Properties of Water A. The Water Molecule 1. Polarity 2. Hydrogen Bonds B. Solutions and Suspensions 1. Solutions 2. Suspensions C. Acids, Bases, and pH 1. The pH Scale 2. Acids 3. Bases 4. Buffers

  41. Water Quality

  42. Composition and polarity Hydrogen bonding properties The Importance of Water • Properties of Water

  43. Ions in Water

  44. The Importance of Water

  45. The Importance of Water • Properties of Water Chemical composition of seawater

  46. The Importance of Water • The Hydrologic Cycle

  47. The Importance of Water • Our Supply of Fresh Water

  48. The Importance of Water • Types of water: • surface water • runoff • drainage basin • groundwater • aquifers

  49. Water formation • Covalently bonded water has is neutral • BUT due polar due to the uneven distribution of electrons between the oxygen and hydrogen atoms. • Made of Hydrogen bonds

  50. Hydrogen bonds • Hydrogen bonds are an attraction between hydrogen (positively charged due to its small size) and the negative charge on another molecule. • Hydrogen bonds are weak. • The drawing below shows hydrogen bonds between water molecules..