Michigan Historic Preservation Network BUILDING MAINTENANCE WORKSHOP Instructor: Bryan Lijewski Architect State Historic Preservation Office (SHPO) Michigan State Housing Development Authority (MSHDA)
U.S. Department of the InteriorSecretary of InteriorNational Park Service TheSecretary of the Interior’s Standards 1. preservation 2. rehabilitation 3. restoration 4. reconstruction
• preservation • rehabilitation • restoration • reconstruction •Basic Standards for all • Historic Character preserved • Documentation • Use most gentle action or treatment • New material to match old • Repair rather than replace • Treatment to be reversible
The Secretary of the Interior’s Standards for Rehabilitation • Two important goals: • The preservation of historic materials • The preservation of a building’s distinguishing character • Character refers to all those visual aspects and physical features that comprise the appearance • Overall shape, materials, craftsmanship, decorative details, interior spaces, and features
Building Maintenance Introduction “Water always wins, that is why there is a Grand Canyon” -Glenn Haege, America’s Master Handyman
Reference Materials • Secretary of the Interior’s Standards for the Treatment of Historic Properties: www.cr.nps.gov/hps/tps/tax/rhb/index.htm • NPS Preservation Briefs (1-47 briefs) www.cr.nps.gov/hps/tps/briefs/presbhom.htm • MHPN Historic Resource Council Directory www.mhpn.org • This Old House Magazine • Old House Journal • Local HDC Standards/ Design Guidelines • APT- Association for Preservation Technology
Workshop Handouts • Home Maintenance Inspection Checklist • PowerPoint Presentation Handout • Preservation Brief #47: Maintaining the Exteriors of Small and Medium Size Historic Buildings • Lead Resource Guide for Owners of Older and Historic Buildings • Simple Steps to Working Windows
General Maintenance Introduction • Why perform general maintenance? • Who should perform maintenance? • Assessment = detailed non-destructive visual inspection of an existing structure. • Always follow rules of safety for climbing ladders/ working with tools/ performing maintenance.
Before you get Started • Research repair history from previous owner/ Building Department/ Neighbors. • Prepare yourself with proper tools, clothes, binoculars and camera. • Practice looking at your house in detail throughout the year to detect problem areas/ materials. Watch water! • Design issues vs. improper construction vs. material deterioration or lifespan. • Create running checklist to prioritize repairs
Inspection/Maintenance Areas • Exterior “Envelope” • Roof • Walls • Windows • Doors • Projections 2. Site 3. Interior Areas 4. Non-occupied Spaces 5. Mechanical\Electrical\Plumbing Systems (MEP)
1. Envelope Roof: Shingles • Inspect all areas of roof at least once a year: covering materials, drip edges, flashings, valleys/ ridges. Roof: Chimneys/Vents • Step flashing, sloped concrete cap with expansion at flue, screened flue cap. • Roof penetrations: verify seals at vents, pipes, antennas, and connections to structure. • Ice and water shield or heat tape at overhangs.
1. Envelope Roof: Chimney Chimney step flashing, sloped concrete cap with expansion at flue, screened flue cap. Roof: Flashing and Vents Verify seals at vents, pipes, antennas, and connections to structure.
1. Envelope Roof: Gutters and Downspouts • Flush gutters and leaders, after cleaning large debris, with a garden hose to clear away remaining grit and to observe how water drains through system. • Verify gutters are attached securely to fascia. • Check for leaks at joints- use butyl caulk to seal. • Verify proper slope- min. ¼” rise per 1’-0” of run. • Check condition of wood fascia behind gutter also.
1. Envelope Walls: Exterior Cladding • Sealant at open joints, apply trim if missing, monitor decorative trim connections and safety condition. • Inspect all wood pieces for insect damage.
1. Envelope Walls: Wood • Keep it dry, and keep it clean. • Maintain slope of wood to shed water. • Research proper wood fillers for your application- epoxy (or Bondo in some cases) Walls: Stucco • Important to maintain flashings and repair damage quickly to keep moisture out. Walls: Masonry • Proper tuckpointing
1. Envelope Windows • Monitor operation, perimeter seals and weatherstrip, tight seal when closed (adjust casing brass screws). Apply sealant at siding/ casing connection. • Use storms for inefficient non-insulated units. • Re-glaze with glazing putty-prime bare wood first. • Scrape, prime, and repaint wood items.
1. Envelope Doors • Monitor operation, perimeter seals and weatherstrip, bottom sweeps, tight seal when closed. Apply sealant at siding/ casing connection. “Spring Bronze” weatherstrip
1. Envelope Projections: Porches, Balconies, etc. • Securely attach loose fixtures or features • Look for evidence of water damage • Use acrylic latex caulk at open wood joints- monitor damage. • Scrape, prime, and paint wood and metal elements. Repair before replace.
1. Envelope Foundations • Fill in cracks in masonry with epoxy based patching compound. • Repoint masonry joints- use lime mortar! • Remove efflorescence with non-metallic brush. • Use acrylic latex caulk at open wood joints- monitor damage. • Scrape, prime, and paint wood and metal elements. Repair before replace. • Maintain vents and holes thru exterior materials
2. Site Drainage systems • Water must flow away from building from roof to street. Verify grades, existing swales, water from neighbors yards, catch basins and street drains. • Standing water, water stains, flaking paint. Paved areas • Fill in cracks, provide expansion joint at building edge, slope away from building.
2. Site Landscaping • Clean leaves from gutters and yard drains. Trim branches away from building and power lines. Keep groundcover and bushes away from foundation. • Vines are attractive, but dangerous! • Keep mulch and grade at least 8” down from exterior house covering. • Garages and Outbuildings
3. Interior Areas General observations • Standing water or excess moisture, wet stains or mildew, flaking paint or plaster, rust on metal components. Rising Damp. • Paint and plaster repair- watch lead based materials. • Safety issues: handrails, stair nosings, worn flooring materials. • Leaky or faulty mechanical, plumbing or electrical systems.
3. Interior Areas Doors and Windows • Ensure all are in working order • Watch out for condensation, air infiltration, etc.
4. Non-Occupied Areas Basement: Walls • Monitor to determine level of moisture. Patch cracks in wall, seal all penetrations. Basement: Floor • Clean floor drains. • Maintain sumps and humidifiers. Basement: Overhead Basement: Windows/Vents • Check pipes for leaks, condensation, insulation.
4. Non-Occupied Areas Basement: Insulation • Verify insulation in joist space and vapor barriers. Basement: Plumbing Leaks • Clean floor drains. • Maintain sumps and humidifiers\dehumidifiers Basement: Pests • Keep clean! Dirt = moisture collection.
4. Non-Occupied Areas Crawl Space • Monitor to determine level of moisture. Crawl Space: Walls Crawl Space: Floors • Provide vapor barrier on sand floor. Crawl Space: Overhead Crawl Space: Ventilation • Verify proper ventilation! Clean existing vents, provide insect screens, add vents if needed.