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Recommendations for Body Composition, Exercise, and Caloric Intake

Recommendations for Body Composition, Exercise, and Caloric Intake. NFSC 303. Standards. Body Fat Body Weight Body Mass Index (BMI) Waist Circumference. Percent Body Fat = % of total body weight that is comprised of fat. Fat vs. Lean Body Mass(LBM) General guidelines: Males < 40 yrs

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Recommendations for Body Composition, Exercise, and Caloric Intake

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  1. Recommendations for Body Composition, Exercise, and Caloric Intake NFSC 303

  2. Standards • Body Fat • Body Weight • Body Mass Index (BMI) • Waist Circumference

  3. Percent Body Fat = % of total body weight that is comprised of fat • Fat vs. Lean Body Mass(LBM) • General guidelines: • Males < 40 yrs • non-athletes: 10-17% • athletes: 6-17%

  4. Percent Body Fat = % of total body weight that is comprised of fat • Females < 40 yrs • non-athletes: 18-27% • athletes: 10-27% • *OVERFAT = percent body fat greater than 20% for males and 30% for females.

  5. Common Methods of Determining %BF • Hydrostatic Weighing: “Gold Standard” • AKA Hydrodensitometry • Body volume is measured difference in body weight (in air) and body weight (under water)

  6. Skinfolds (Caliper Method) • Measure thickness of subcutaneous fat layer • Many assumption made • Numerous sites may be measured • Plugged into prediction equation to estimate % body fat • Example: Triceps skinfold

  7. ELECTRICAL METHOD - BIA • (Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis) • LBM has water and electrolytes which are conductive (fat impedes current) • Alternating current passed through body and resistance to this current is measured = Impedance Analysis • Subjects must be in standard state -well hydrated -avoid caffeine, alcohol, and heavy exercise 12 hours prior to testing

  8. Bioelectrical Impedance

  9. IMAGING TECHNIQUES • Computed Tomography - uses x-rays to create x-sectional image of body • DXA - Duel X-ray Absorptiometry - also uses x-rays • MRI - uses radiowaves to create radiographic image

  10. Body Weight • Hamwi Equations (see protein notes) • More accurate way: estimate appropriate wt. based on body composition • Appropriate Body Weight = Lean body mass weight 1.0 - %body fat “goal”

  11. Example: 205# male currently 22% body fat body fat goal of 18% Step 1: Find weight of lean body mass 205# X .22 = 45 # of fat mass 205 - 45 = 160# of lean body mass Step 2: Convert desired body fat (goal) into a decimal 18% = .18 ( 1 - .18 = .82 for denominator of equation) Step 3: Plug into equation: Appropriate Body Weight = 160# LBM weight = 195 lb. .82

  12. Body Mass Index (BMI) • Body weight (KG) / height2 (meters) • Easier calculation: BMI =Wt# ÷ Ht” ÷ Ht” x 703

  13. Body Mass Index (BMI) • Healthy range: 19-25 • BMI over 25 indicates increased risk for obesity-related health disorders • BMI is NOT appropriate for • kids, adolescents • adults over 65 • pregnant/lactating women • highly muscular individuals

  14. Waist Circumference • High risk for obesity-related disorders is associated with a waist circumference of: >40 inches for men >35 inches for women

  15. Exercise Recommendations Type of Exercise Intensity Duration Frequency

  16. TYPE OF EXERCISE • Cornerstone, or primary exercise • Alternative, or secondary exercise • Strength/resistance exercise • Lifestyle activities

  17. INTENSITY • Ideally, exercise program should include several levels of intensity • Monitoring intensity • RPE = Rate of Perceived Exertion • THR Range = Target Heart Rate Range • Conditioning effect at 50-85% MHR

  18. Calculating THR Range • Determine RHR • Determine MHR = 220 - age • Choose desired intensity level (range) Exercise Intensity Percent of MHR Mild < 50% MHR Moderate 50 - 75% MHR Intense > 75% MHR

  19. Calculate target heart rate (THR) range for desired intensity level • THR = [(MHR - RHR) x intensity] + RHR • Example: 24 year old would like to exercise between 50 and 75 percent of her MHR. The target heart rate range (THR) would be determined as follows:

  20. RHR is measured at 70 beats per minute • MHR = 220 - 24 = 196 beats/min. • 50% of MHR: • THR = [(196 - 70) x .50] + 70 = 133 beats/minute • 75% of MHR: • THR = [(196 - 70) x .75] + 70 = 165 beats/minute • THR Range is 133 to 165 beats per minute.

  21. FREQUENCY & DURATION • Goal? • Decreasing risk for chronic disease • Weight loss • Cardiorespiratory Fitness • Cardio vs. Strength Activities

  22. As you become more fit, your resting heart rate should decline

  23. Beats Per Minute (BPM)

  24. Recommendations for Kcals • Goal? • Kcals expended (average) • Current kcal intake (average) • Current kcals +/- for wt. gain/loss

  25. If decreasing kcals for wt loss, be sure to consider • BMR kcals • Protein needs • CHO needs • What needs to give?

  26. Meeting Goals • It’s easier to put healthy things in than to restrict favorites out! • It’s all about the portions • Environmental control • Internal vs. external cues

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