THE SEVEN ONES OF EPHESIANS 4 Our Elusive Goal of Uniting all Christians November 20, 2010 Mt. Pinatubo Church of Christ Cabangan, Zambales By Ed Maquiling http://mountainviewcoc.wordpress.com http://edmaq.wordpress.com
A Walk Down History’s Lane • Whence came the Churches of Christ of today? • First church – AD 33 – Jerusalem – Founded by Jesus – Had Apostles and Prophets, Elders and Deacons, Evangelists and Teachers, Had local assemblies • Paul prophesied that some churches of Christ would fall away (1 Tim. 4:1-3).
1 Timothy 4:1-3 (ASV) • 1 But the Spirit saith expressly, that in later times some shall fall away from the faith, giving heed to seducing spirits and doctrines of demons, • 2 through the hypocrisy of men that speak lies, branded in their own conscience as with a hot iron; • 3 forbidding to marry, and commanding to abstain from meats, which God created to be received with thanksgiving by them that believe and know the truth.
“Some Shall Fall Away From the Faith” • (1) “Some,” τινες, “a part of the whole.” Which simply shows that the apostasy of the church was not total or complete. • (2) “Shall fall away,” αποστησονται, future indicative middle deponent, “to go away, to withdraw, to fall away, to become apostate” (Rogers & Rogers, 493). • (3) “From the faith,” της πιστεως, the word indicates that which they leave and is used in the objective sense, meaning “the Christian doctrine, the sound teaching” (Rogers & Rogers, 493).
Catholicism was the result of such a falling away, coming to prominence by the election of their first pope (Boniface III) in AD 607. With the rise of Catholicism, the true church became the minority religious groups. Catholicism the most prominent Apostate Church
Papal Succession? • Roman Catholic Church claims to prove their apostolic origin through the so-called “papal succession.” • ANSWER: “The doctrine [of apostolic succession], however, was not formalized until the conflict with Gnosticism during the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th centuries, when the Gnostics claimed a secret tradition traceable to the apostles. Church authorities then began to look to the succession of bishop to bishop as the guarantee of orthodox teaching” (Microsoft Encarta Premium Suite 2005; art. Apostolic Succession).
Baptist Succession? • The Baptist Church claims to prove their divine origin through the so-called “Baptist succession.” • ANSWER: “Baptist writers differ concerning the question whether it is possible to trace an uninterrupted succession of Baptist churches from the apostles’ times down to the present” (McClintock & Strong Cyclopedia, vol. 1, p. 653).
Churches of Christ should not make the same mistakes as the Catholics and the Baptists. • Let’s quash the squash theory of succession: • Original squash in the US ► its vines being carried over the ship ► flowered in the Philippines ► bore fruit in Zambales! ??? • That Religious Squash is basically what the Catholics and the Baptists want us to believe!
The Parable of the Sower: Luke 8:4-11 • And when a great crowd came together and people from town after town came to him, he said in a parable: 5 "A sower went out to sow his seed; and as he sowed, some fell along the path, and was trodden under foot, and the birds of the air devoured it. 6 And some fell on the rock; and as it grew up, it withered away, because it had no moisture. 7 And some fell among thorns; and the thorns grew with it and choked it. 8 And some fell into good soil and grew, and yielded a hundredfold." As he said this, he called out, "He who has ears to hear, let him hear."
9 And when his disciples asked him what this parable meant, 10 he said, "To you it has been given to know the secrets of the kingdom of God; but for others they are in parables, so that seeing they may not see, and hearing they may not understand. 11 Now the parable is this: The seed is the word of God.
The meaning and goal of the parable • The seed of the kingdom is the Word of God, and that seed is still with us. • The parable illustrates the principle that whenever and wherever the seed is sown, from the time it was first preached up to our modern times, it has produced and will always produce Christians.
The Religious Antecedents of our Restoration Movement • Peter Waldo (1140-1218)/ Waldensians • John Wycliffe (1328-1384)/ Lollards • Jan Hus (1369-1415) • Petr Chelčický (1390-1460) • Anabaptists (16th century) • Glassites and Sandemanians (17th century) • The Haldaneans (18th century) • Barton W. Stone (1772-1844) • Alexander Campbell (1788-1866)
Christians Impacting ►Others to Become Workers for God • Waldensians ► John Wycliffe & Lollards • Lollards ► Jan Hus • Jan Hus ► Petr Chelčický • Hus + Chelčický + Luther + Zwingli + Erasmus ► Anabaptists • Anabaptists ► John Glas • Waldo + Wycliffe + Hus + Luther + Zwingli + Anabaptists ► Haldaneans • Haldaneans ► Alexander Campbell • Great Awakening ► Barton W. Stone
Peter Valdez/ Peter Waldo (1140-1218) Wealthy merchant of Lyons, France; sold his property in 1177 and gave to the poor Organized “The Poor Men of Lyons,” which group later came to be known as the Waldensians. They called themselves the “church of Christ.” Waldensian Reformation: The Church of Christ of the 12th Century
They kept on preaching in spite of the prohibition against them. They were burned at stake in Toulouse, in SW France, 13th century. Burning of the Waldensians In 1184, they were formally declared heretics by “pope” Lucius III.
The Waldensians were massacred in the village of Merindol, in Provence, in SE France, in 1545. The Massacre of the Waldensians:Merindol, Provence, France
In 1655, the Waldensians were tortured, impaled, and massacred in the town of La Torre, Spain. From "History of the Evangelical Churches of the Valleys of Piedmont,“ by Samuel Morelands, published in London in 1658. The Massacre of the Waldensians:in La Torre, in Spain
John Wycliffe (1328-1384) “Morning Star of the Reformation” Wycliffe argued that the Bible is the standard of authority An opponent of papal authority The English Reformation: 14th Century
The Lollards: The Church of Christ of the 14th Century • John Wycliffe translated the Latin Vulgate into vernacular English (1380’s), which made it more understandable to the ordinary Englishmen. • He formed a group of believers patterned after the Christians in the New Testament. • This group was labeled by their enemies as “Lollards,” which means “mumblers.” • The Lollards church also called themselves the “church of Christ.”
Jan Hus (1369-1415) He heard the teachings of John Wycliffe through Anne of Bohemia (wife of Richard II, King of England) and her group. Hus proposed a reform of the Bohemian church. The Roman Catholic Church condemned Hus in 1411 and burned him at stake on July 6, 1415. The Hussite Reformation: 14th Century
Petr Chelčický Born in Chelčice, Bohemia, about 1390. Foremost thinker in the Czech Reformation Movement. (1) Separation of church and state (2) Non-violence and pacifism (3) Equality of all Christians (4) Priesthood of all believers Hussite Reformation: The Church of Christ in the 14th Century
Conrad Grebel (c. 1498–1526) Balthasar Hubmaier (c.1480 -1528). George Blaurock (c. 1491-1529) Felix Manz (c. 1498-1527) Wilhelm Reublin (1480-1559) Image: Balthasar Hubmaier Anabaptist Movement: The Church of Christ of the 15th Century
Original Anabaptist Teachings • They considered themselves the true church • The Bible is the sole rule of faith and practice • Freedom of religion and liberty of conscience • Separation of church and state • Pacifism and non-resistance • Non-conformity to the world • Voluntary church membership and believer’s baptism • Priesthood of all believers • Lord’s Supper every Sunday • Scriptural church organization
John Glas (1695-1773) In 1725 he repudiated the obligation of national covenants for Christians. He was terminated from his job as minister of a Scottish church. He formed a separate society which he called “ecclesia,” “the church of Christ.” Glassites & Sandemanians: The Churches of Christ of the 17th Century
Robert Sandeman (1718-1771) A nonconformist theologian. He helped to promote the Glassite church of Christ. He was more forceful than Glass and also more controversial. Was largely responsible for spreading the church's doctrines both within Scotland and elsewhere. Glassites and Sandemanians: The Churches of Christ of the 17th Century
Glassite Teachings • No New Testament authority for a state church. • Separation of the church and the state. • No authority for magistrates ruling over the church but only elders or bishops. • No scriptural grounds for National Covenants. • Reformation cannot be carried out by the weapons of the State but by the Word of Christ only. • Baptism as an expression of faith and for the remission of one’s corruptness and sins. • Regular partaking of the emblems of the Lord’s Supper on a Lord’s day.
Sandemanian Practices • No theater entertainment on Sundays. • Mutual edification. • Love feasts on Sundays. • Belief that they alone were the true church. • Sandemanian congregations remained small partly because these churches were factious and exclusive. • Their factiousness and exclusivism also held them back in England and Scotland. • Sandeman died in Danbury, Connecticut. His churches never grew in the US because of his English loyalty in the years leading up to the American War of Independence.
Robert Haldane (1764-1842) In 1797 he sold his castle, left the Church of Scotland and traveled around Scotland preaching. In December 1797 he joined his brother and some others in the founding of the "Society for the Propagation of the Gospel at Home“ to build churches, support missionaries, and to build schools to train preachers. Haldanean Reformation: The Church of Christ of the 18th Century
James Alexander Haldane (1768-1851) • 1796 - became acquainted with Charles Simeon of Cambridge, in whose company he toured Scotland, distributing tracts, awakening others to an interest in religion. • 1797 - established a non-sectarian organization for tract distribution and lay preaching called the "Society for the Propagation of the Gospel at Home". • During the next few years he made repeated missionary journeys, preaching wherever he could obtain hearers, and generally in the open air.
The Impact of the Work of the Haldaneans • Initiated a plan to evangelize Africa by bringing the black children over to their schools to be trained as Christian missionaries. • Lectures in the European continent had influenced many students of theology and changed the religious landscape of Europe. • By their writings they impacted others. • By their schools and churches, they influenced others.
Barton W. Stone (1772-1844) An important preacher during the Second Great Awakening of the early 19th century. Was expelled from the Presbyterian church after the Cane Ridge revival for his stated beliefs in faith as the sole prerequisite for salvation. The Stone Movement: Churches of Christ in Kentucky
Alexander Campbell (1788-1866) The Campbell wing of the Restoration Movement began with Thomas Campbell, who wrote the Declaration and Address of the Christian Association of Washington in 1809. The Campbell Movement: Churches of Christ in Virginia
Baptists affiliated with Mahoning Association Merged with the Campbells DISCIPLES OF CHRIST (Campbell) Some Baptist Churches
Stone’s followers were first called “New Lights,’” “Stoneites” or “Church of Christ.” • Stone’s “Church of Christ” later became allied with Alexander Campbell’s “Disciples of Christ,” and formed the Restoration Movement in America. • In spite of their many doctrinal differences, Stone and Campbell tried to bring their denominations together that relied solely on the Scriptures.
The Stone and Campbell Movements Became One in 1830. DISCIPLES OF CHRIST (Campbell) CHURCH OF CHRIST (Stone) Churches of Christ Disciples of Christ Christian Church 1830
Others in the Stone churches that did not join the Restoration Movement remained in the Denominations CHURCH OF CHRIST (Stone) Christian Connection United Church of Christ (US)
This then was our origin. DISCIPLES OF CHRIST (Campbell) CHURCH OF CHRIST (Stone) Churches of Christ Disciples of Christ Christian Church 1830
In 1906, We Were Listed Separately from Other Restoration Churches Disciples of Christ Christian Church 1830 CHURCHES OF CHRIST 1906 CHARACTERISTICS: A Cappella Singing Non-Mission Society Premillenialists Non-Sunday School One-Cuppers, etc. CHARACTERISTICS: (1) Instruments of music (2) Mission society (3) Premillenialists (4) One cuppers (5) Non-institutionalists
In 1920, the Christian Church and the Disciples of Christ Divorced Over Open Membership Disciples of Christ Christian Church 1830 CHRISTIAN CHURCH/ Churches of Christ (Instrumental/ Non-Mission Society/ Immersionist) 1920 DISCIPLES OF CHRIST/ Christian Church (Instrumental/ Mission Society/ Open Membership 1920
Christian Church and Disciples of Christ Still Go Separate Ways Stone-Campbell Movement 1830 CHRISTIAN CHURCH/ Churches of Christ (Instrumental/ Non-Mission Society/ Immersionist) 1920 DISCIPLES OF CHRIST/ Christian Church (Instrumental/ Mission Society/ Open Membership 1920
We Became Three Polarized Groups: Liberal, Centrist and Conservative CHURCH OF CHRIST (A Cappella/ Non- Mission Society/ Immersionist) 1906 CHRISTIAN CHURCH/ Churches of Christ (Instrumental/ Non-Mission Society/ Immersionist) 1920 DISCIPLES OF CHRIST/ Christian Church (Instrumental/ Mission Society/ Open Membership 1920
Divisions in Our Ranks: Chart Showing Where We Came From CHURCH OF CHRIST (A Cappella/ Non- Mission Society/ Immersionist) 1906 Stone-Campbell Restoration Movement 1830 CHRISTIAN CHURCH/ Churches of Christ (Instrumental/ Non-Mission Society/ Immersionist) 1920 DISCIPLES OF CHRIST/ Christian Church (Instrumental/ Mission Society/ Open Membership 1920
The Disciples of Christ in this Country Merged with the UNIDA/ UCCP Disciples of Christ/ Christian Church (Instrumental/ Mission Society) 1920 Unida/ UCCP 1950s
Some Centrists in the Philippines Too Joined the UNIDA/ UCCP Christian Church/ Church of Christ (Instrumental/ Non- Mission Society) 1920 Unida/ UCCP 1950s
Some Centrists did not Merge With UNIDA But Remained Centrist Unida/ UCCP 1950s Church of Christ (Instrumentalist/ Non- Mission Society)
Division in their Ranks: Showing Where They Came From Christian Church/ Church of Christ (Instrumental/ Non- Mission Society) 1920 Disciples of Christ/ Christian Church (Instrumental/ Mission Society) 1920 Merger in the 1950s Church of Christ (Instrumentalist/ Non- Mission Society) UNIDA/ UCCP
Divisions in the Ranks of the Churches of Christ Premillenialist Church of Christ (1937) Churches of Christ (A Cappella)
Divisions in the Ranks of the Churches of Christ Premillenialist Church of Christ (1937) Churches of Christ (A Cappella) Non-institutionalist Church of Christ (1950’s)
Divisions in the Ranks of the Churches of Christ Premillenialist Church of Christ (1937) Churches of Christ (A Cappella) Non-institutionalist Church of Christ (1950’s) One-Cuppers, Non-Sunday School (1960’s)