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Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran secara Online

Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran secara Online

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Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran secara Online

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  1. Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran secara Online PM DR. NORAZAH MOHD. NORDIN Fakultipendidikan ukm

  2. Outline • Intoduction • Definition • Terminology • Emerging Trends and Practices • Technologies and Techniques • Learning Theories • Remarks

  3. Online learning • the most accessible pathway to the new knowledge • economy and related jobs for the majority of working people • includes mobile learning, e-gaming, online communities, and learning management systems that engage each user.

  4. Online Learning ‘online learning is an educational material that is presented on a computer’ Carliner (1999)

  5. Online Learning ‘online instruction is an innovative approach for delivering instruction to a remote audience, using the Web as the medium. Online learning, however, involves more than just the presentation and delivery of materials using the Web: the learner and the learning process should be the focus of online learning. (Khan 1997)

  6. Online Learning ‘online learning is [t]he use of the Internet to access learning materials; to interact with the content, instructor, and other learners; and to obtain support during the learning process, in order to acquire knowledge, to construct personal meaning, and to grow from the learning experience’ (Ally, 2007)

  7. Terminologies used for online learning • e-learning • Internet learning • distributed learning, • networked learning • tele-learning • virtual learning • computer-assisted learning • web-based learning • distance learning

  8. Technology LMS ASP/ESP Multimedia Contents Row data Original Draft Service Components of Online Learning Learners + Training delivery methods Operation System Reference

  9. Develop course details • Establish discussion guideline • Develop a flexible syllabus • Develop Contents with module or small unit • Create a timeline • Develop assignments • Decide about evaluation technique to use Web based e-Learning for statistical education

  10. Emerging Trends and Practices • Noble and Worthy Mission • Bringing learning to the disenfranchised • Those who have not been served by traditional classroom settings • Interesting (and exciting) times! • New tools, new techniques, new theories! • After centuries of sameness (since printing press) we now are confronted with a new context in higher education

  11. Millennial Students • Millennials Rising: The Next Great Generation, Neil Howe and William Strauss – 7 descriptors: • Special • Sheltered • Confident • Team-Oriented • Achieving • Pressured • Conventional • They expect Student Centered Learning

  12. Digital Natives • So if Digital Immigrant educators really want to reach Digital Natives – e.g. all their students – they will have to change. It’s high time for them to stop their grousing, and as the Nike motto of the Digital Native generation says, “Just do it!” They will succeed in the long run – and their successes will come that much sooner if their administrators support them. • Who are the Millennial Students?

  13. Technologies and Techniques • How do we connect with the digital natives – the millennial students? • Time-shifting technologies • Encourage interaction - engage • Facilitate individual communication • Utilize their means of communication – digital • Meet them where they are – on their turf

  14. Learning Theories • Applying learning theories to online teaching and learning

  15. “Personally, I’m always ready to learn, although I do not always like being taught.” -Winston Churchill

  16. Learning Theories • Behaviorist, Cognitivist, Constructivist • Mental Representations • Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning • Connectivism

  17. Learning Theories • Behaviorist • Thorndike, Pavlov, Skinner • Learning = observable behavioral changes • Cognitivist • Craik, Tulving, Ausubel • Learning = motivation, thinking, memory, reflection • Construcitivst • Piaget, Vygotsky, Bruner • Learning = observation, processing, interpretation

  18. Learning Theories • Mental Representations • Paivio’s Dual Coding Theory • Verbal and nonverbal subsystems • Words/pictures enhance cognitive coding • Interactive imagery • Research supports use of images & text

  19. Learning Theories • Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning • Mayer extends Paivio’s theory • Pictures = “animation” • Text = “narration” • Computer-based multimedia presentations • Prior knowledge influences integration of pictures and text in “working memory”

  20. Learning Theories • Connectivism • “A learning theory for the digital age” • Personal knowledge is a “network” • Personal to network to organization • Know “where” to locate “up-to-date” knowledge

  21. Just Do It Right! • Motivate learners • Promote meaningful learning • Encourage interaction & collaboration • Give timely constructive feedback • Look at the whole person • Learner and learning process at the center

  22. Sampling of New Technologies • Innovative trends and practices • Blogs • Podcasting and Enhanced Podcasting • Wikis • RSS • Gaming – simulations

  23. Blogs • WeB + LOGS = BLOGS • Since 1997 • Reverse chronological order • Quick and easy way to publish instantly and internationally • Provision for responses • http://iteslj.org/Techniques/Johnson-Blogs/ • http://grandtextauto.gatech.edu/2004/08/06/teaching-with-blogs

  24. Blogs • How are blogs used in education? • Faculty members sharing info with students • Online discussions • Students in virtual study groups • Students sharing creative writing with world • Online journaling • E-Portfolios • Anonymous evaluations • Incredible reach – last 24 hours for OLU

  25. Podcasts • iPOD + broadCAST = PODCAST • Born out of blogs • Audio blogging using MP3 or MP4 format • Listened to online or through iTunes auto-downloaded to an iPod • Dr. Margaret Maag – USF: • http://feeds.feedburner.com/NursingEducation • Dr. Burks Oakley – University of Illinois: • http://burkso2.blogspot.com

  26. Podcasts • Podcasts recorded outside the classroom • Skype (Voice over Internet Protocol) computer-to-computer or telephone – or via iTalk microphone • SHU Podcast • Ed-CastAn International Collaboration to Enhance Access and Knowledge via podcasts freely shared across institutions

  27. Vodcasts • Video On Demand + broadCAST = VODCAST • Video files commonly in blogs that can be played on a computer or a video iPod • Some example sites: • http://www.vodcasts.tv/ • http://research.uchicago.edu/highlights/science/index.shtml#

  28. Pod/Vodcasts How are Pod/Vodcasts used in education? • Lecture delivery • Those who miss class • Review of lectures • Slider-bar for review of concepts • Voiced discussion boards • Providing richer communication • Student project delivery • Enabling audio/video multimedia

  29. Wikis • Wiki = Hawaiian term for “quick” (e.g. wiki wiki buses) • Online shared space for composition • Normally, anyone with access can edit • Wikipedia • http://www.wikipedia.org/ • Wikispaces • http://rayschroeder.wikispaces.com/ • http://rayschroeder.wikispaces.com/shu

  30. RSS • Rich Site Summary / Really Simple Syndication • Online XML files pointing to updates • http://people.uis.edu/rschr1/onlinelearning/blogger_rss.xml • Aggregators • http://newsisfree.com • Enables instant sharing of resources • Blogs, Podcasts, Vodcasts, Wikis • Dynamic pages • http://people.uis.edu/rschr1/oluinfo.htm

  31. Gaming - Simulation • Millennial learners are veterans at digital gaming and simulation • More hours spent with x-box than prior generations spent with books • Comfortable mode of learning • http://www.merlot.org/search/ArtifactList.po?keyword=simulation

  32. Theory References Athabasca University. (2004). Foundations of Educational Theory for Online Learning. In T. Anderson, & F. Elloumi (Eds.), Theory and Practice of Online Learning. (pp. 3-31). Available at http://cde.athabascau.ca/online_book/. Mayer, R. (2001). Multimedia learning. Cambridge, England: University Press. Paivio, A. (1986). Mental representations: A dual coding approach. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.

  33. Theory References Siemens, G. (2004). Connectivism: A Learning Theory for the Digital Age. Available at: http://www.elearnspace.org/Articles/connectivism.htm.

  34. Technology Sources • Educause has published a free E-Book on the topic: Educating the Net Generation (July, 2005) • http://www.educause.edu/EducatingtheNetGeneration/5989 • Online Learning Update – more than 5,000 postings since 2001 • http://people.uis.edu/rschr1/onlinelearning/blogger.html

  35. Future e-Learning Continuing & Lifelong Education Learner oriented education Future e-Learning Media based distance education Active Interactivity education Web based e-Learning for statistical education

  36. Future of e-Learning • Just in Time • Based on Web : WAP(Wireless Application Protocol) • Notebook PDA based Online Learning •  Just For Me • Personalized instructional learning objects which is based on individual level and style • Usable of inner and outer reference without limitation

  37. THANK YOU