1 / 69

Biology 241: Human Anatomy and Physiology 1

Biology 241: Human Anatomy and Physiology 1. Instructor: Joel Dahms. Introductions. Note cards Name Year you graduated HS and where Career goal List of classes you have taken that may help prepare you for A&P and WHEN you took them (e.g. BIO 160, Fall ‘13)

Télécharger la présentation

Biology 241: Human Anatomy and Physiology 1

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author. Content is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use only. Download presentation by click this link. While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server. During download, if you can't get a presentation, the file might be deleted by the publisher.


Presentation Transcript

  1. Biology 241: Human Anatomy and Physiology 1 Instructor: Joel Dahms

  2. Introductions • Note cards • Name • Year you graduated HS and where • Career goal • List of classes you have taken that may help prepare you for A&P and WHEN you took them (e.g. BIO 160, Fall ‘13) • List any other relevant experience you’ve had (job, internship, taking care of relatives, etc.). • Your preferred email address

  3. Syllabus Highlights • Class meets: Mon 6:00 – 9:20PM in AS1521 (lecture) Wed 6:00 – 9:30PM in AS1615 (lab)

  4. Contact Info • Email: joel.dahms@seattlecolleges.edu  email is the best way to contact me • Office hours: by appointment

  5. Course Website The website has: • Syllabus • Lecture notes • Objectives (learning goals/study aids) for each unit • Resources to help you study

  6. Course Website Course Website: http://facweb.northseattle.edu/jdahms/biol241/

  7. Required Texts:

  8. Required Texts: • Human Anatomy and Physiology,Ninth Ed., Elaine N. Marieb & Katja Hoehn, Pearson Benjamin Cummings, 2012. • Human Anatomy & Physiology Laboratory Manual, Main Version, Tenth Ed., Elaine N. Marieb & Susan J. Mitchell, Pearson Benjamin Cummings, 2013.

  9. Optional Texts: • A Brief Atlas of the Human Body, Second Ed., Matt Hutchinson et al., Pearson Benjamin Cummings, 2007. • An Atlas of Histology. Shu-Xin Zhang, Springer, 1999. • Study Guide for Human Anatomy and Physiology, Eighth Ed., Elaine N. Marieb & Katja Hoehn, Pearson Benjamin Cummings, 2009. • The Anatomy Coloring Book, Third Ed., Wynn Kapit and Lawrence M. Elson, Benjamin Cummings, 2001. • The Physiology Coloring Book, Wynn Kapit, Robert I. Macey, and Lawrence Meisami, Second Ed., Benjamin Cummings, 2000.

  10. Optional Texts:

  11. Grading Breakdown: • Exams 400 points • Lab Practical Quizzes 200 points • Lab Reports & Assigns 200 points Total 800 points

  12. Grades Your grade = points you earn 800 points

  13. Important Grade Percentages 4.0 96% 3.8 94% 3.5 90% 3.0 82% 2.5 75% 2.0 66%

  14. Commitment • This is a very difficult class that requires learning what is essentially a new language • Because it is a prerequisite, the class is designed by the college as an overview: lots of breadth, little depth • Expect 25+ hours of reading and studying each week in addition to class sessions • The pace is a little frantic so missing class is not recommended.

  15. Exams • First 4 exams • 75 points each • 1 hour 15 minutes • First two on Weds, next two on Mon • Final (Exam 5): • NOT cumulative • 100 points • 2 hours • Monday of finals week (March 24th)

  16. Exams Five exams: 1/15 Wed Exam 1 (Chaps 1-3) 1/29 Wed Exam 2 (Chaps 4, 5) 2/10 Mon Exam 3 (Chaps 6, 7) 2/24 Mon Exam 4 (Chaps 8-10) 3/24 Mon Exam 5 (Chaps 11-15)

  17. Exams • Given at the beginning of class • A little more than half objective questions: multiple-choice, matching, a few true/false • The rest: fill-in-the-blank, short answer, short essay, and diagram labeling • You will need a Scantron form and a #2 pencil for each exam. • Not cumulative per se

  18. Exams • Exams may not be rescheduled or made-up due to tardiness or absence. Students with extraordinary circumstances should discuss them with the instructor as soon as the situation occurs. • If you know ahead of time that you will miss an exam for a valid reason, I may be able to accommodate you but let me know as far ahead of time as possible. Today would be good.

  19. Labs • Many laboratory exercises must be completed in the laboratory. Students who miss a laboratory exercise should come in during open lab time to make up that exercise. • The Review Sheet at the end of each assigned lab exercises will be due the following week. • Lab activities are designed to help prepare you for the practical quizzes, but lab material is also fair game on exams.

  20. Lab Practicals • Four, each worth 50 points • Cover the material on the “Lab Practical Study Guide” in the syllabus • They will involve identifying slides, projected pictures of slides, bones, muscle models, brain models, or diagrams. • Because of the time required to set these up, they cannot be made up. If you miss it, you are out of luck. NO EXCEPTIONS.

  21. Lab Practical Quizzes 2/3 Wed Practical 1: Histology 2/17 Wed Practical 2: Bones 3/3 Wed Practical 3: Muscles 3/17 Wed Practical 4:Nervous

  22. Lab Reports and Assignments • Total of 200 points • Lab reports = 150 • Assignments = 50

  23. Lab Reports • For each lab assigned, complete all the questions on the lab manual “Review Sheet” found at the end of each lab and turn it in to me the week following each lab. NOTE: you must turn in the actual pages torn out of a laboratory manual; no photocopies will be accepted. You must also include any data obtained from the lab exercise or drawings of microscope slides.

  24. Assignments • In class group work or individual take-home • Case studies or in-depth look at a topic • 3-4 assigned depending on timing

  25. Lectures • Lecture slides available on course website before lecture (all are posted now). • Lecture material (= slides plus what I say in class) will be what I ask about on exams. • “Objectives” for each unit posted on the website. These are a general idea of what you should know for the exams. • Use the objectives as your guide for studying the notes

  26. MW Evening Class • Two Monday holidays this quarter • This causes some scheduling issues that mean that the timing of the exams and practicals is not always optimal • For the lectures that we miss, I will put up video lectures on the website – more details on this later

  27. Objectives • List of learning goals that need to be achieved for you to do well in this class • Contain what the I and other teachers at NSCC have deemed to be the most important things for you to know to go on in a health-related career • Available on the course website

  28. Attendance • Students should try to attend every class session. If you miss a class session, it is your responsibility to obtain the lecture notes, to make up laboratory experiments and to obtain handouts, assignments or other materials distributed in class. ESPECIALLY because we meet only twice a week.

  29. Schedule of Lectures and Readings (Approximate)

  30. Questions?

  31. Introduction to the Human Body

  32. Anatomy • “tome” means to cut in Greek • Describes the structures of the body: • what they are made of • where they are located • associated structures

  33. Physiology • Is the study of: • functions of anatomical structures, both individual and cooperative

  34. KEY CONCEPT • All physiological functions are performed by specific anatomical structures • Principle of complementarity says that structure and function arecomplementary • Function always reflects structure • What a structure can do depends on its specific form

  35. Introduction • Key to learning anatomy is understanding function • For example: Left side of heart is larger than right. • Why is that? Structure (anatomy) and function (physiology) are intimately related

  36. Methods of Studying Anatomy • Gross Anatomy • Structures large enough that one can see with the unaided eye • Systemic Anatomy - Study of the 11* specific organ systems • Microscopic anatomy • Involves studying anatomical structures that cannot be seen with the unaided eye • Cytology – cells • Histology – tissue

  37. Integumentary* Nervous* Skeletal* Endocrine Muscular* Cardiovascular Lymphatic Urinary Respiratory Reproductive Digestive 11 Organ systems

  38. Physiology = Function • Considers the operation of specific organ systems • e.g. Cardiovascular – operation of the heart and blood vessels • Focuses on the functions of the body, often at the cellular or molecular level

  39. Anatomical Organization • We will start from the smallest and finish with the largest

  40. Levels of Organization • Chemical Level: - atoms (e.g. carbon) combine to form molecules (e.g. glucose) • Cellular level: • Smallest living units in organisms • Cells contain organelles, each with a function • Tissue level - different groups of cells that perform a function • Organ Level - Different types of tissues that perform a common function • Organ system – consists of different organs that work closely together

  41. Smooth muscle cell Molecules Cellular level Cells are made up of molecules. 2 Atoms 1 Chemical level Atoms combine to form molecules. Smooth muscle tissue 3 Tissue level Tissues consist of similar types of cells. Heart Cardiovascular system Blood vessels Epithelial tissue Smooth muscle tissue Blood vessel (organ) 6 Organismal level The human organism is made up of many organ systems. Connective tissue 4 Organ level Organs are made up of different types of tissues. 5 Organ system level Organ systems consist of different organs that work together closely. Levels of Structural Organization Figure 1.1

  42. Other Levels • Organismal Level - All systems working together (e.g. humans) • Ecological level - How organisms interact with each other and their environment

  43. KEY CONCEPT • The body is divided into 11 organ systems • All organ systems work together Integration

  44. Homeostasis • Homeostasis: ability to maintain a relatively stable internal environment in an ever-changing outside world • All body systems working together to maintain a stable internal environment, respond to external and internal changes to function within a normal range (body temperature, fluid balance) • The internal environment of the body is in a dynamic state of equilibrium • Failure to function within a normal range results in disease

  45. Homeostatic Control Mechanisms • Variables produce a change in the body • The three interdependent components of control mechanisms: • Receptor – monitors the environments and responds to changes (stimuli). • Control center – determines the set point at which the variable is maintained. • Effector – provides the means to respond to stimuli.

  46. 3 Input: Information sent along afferent pathway to Control center 4 Output: Information sent along efferent pathway to Receptor (sensor) Effector 2 Change detected by receptor 5 Response of effector feeds back to influence magnitude of stimulus and returns variable to homeostasis Stimulus: Produces change in variable 1 Imbalance Variable (in homeostasis) Imbalance Homeostatic Control Mechanisms Figure 1.4

  47. Regulation • Intrinsic regulation • When a process regulates itself with no help. • Most regulatory systems in the body use extrinsic regulation: • responses controlled by nervous and endocrine systems, e.g. brain regulates body temp • Usually occurs by negative feedback

  48. Feedback • When the end result or product of a process “feeds back” upon the stimulus to change it • Negative feedback: end product negates or opposes the stimulus • Positive feedback: end product enhances or facilitates the stimulus

  49. Negative Feedback • Most common way that homeostasis is maintained in the body • In negative feedback systems, the response of the effector negates or opposes the stimulus (shuts off the original stimulus) • Example: Regulation of room temperature by a thermostat

  50. Signalwire turns heater off Control center (thermostat) Set point Receptor-sensor (thermometer in Thermostat) Heater off Effector (heater) Response; temperature drops Stimulus: rising room temperature Imbalance Balance Response; temperature rises Stimulus: dropping room temperature Imbalance Heater on Set point Effector (heater) Receptor-sensor (thermometer in Thermostat) Signal wire turns heater on Control center (thermostat) Figure 1.5

More Related