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Aquatic Life – Invertebrate Animals

Aquatic Life – Invertebrate Animals

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Aquatic Life – Invertebrate Animals

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  1. Aquatic Life – Invertebrate Animals In this unit we will introduce characteristics of aquatic organisms and focus on invertebrate animals (that lack a backbone). Photo Credit: Photograph by Chris Newbert/Minden Pictures

  2. Characteristics of Animals • eukaryotic • cells have a nucleus and specialized organelles • No cell wall • multicellular • heterotrophs

  3. Essential Functions • Homeostasis • Feeding/Excretion • Support/Movement • Respiration/ Circulation • Response to Environment • Reproduction http://photography.nationalgeographic.com/photography/photos/schools-fish/school-of-grunt-fish-photography.html

  4. Feeding and Excretion • Animals must find, consume, and digest food for energy. • They must also get rid of waste products. • Just as the machines in a factory produce waste, the cells of organisms often produce a “trash” substance called ammonia which is poisonous. • The excretion (to get rid of) of wastes from the bodyvaries between organisms. http://photography.nationalgeographic.com/photography/photos/colorful-sea-creatures/pygmy-seahorse-doubilet.html

  5. Support & Movement • Most animals are active and require energy for movement. • Some animals are sessile, or permanently attached to one spot (EX sponges). • Most animals are motile and are free-moving at some time in their life cycle (which allows offspring to settle in a new place). • Some animals are passive and move only when carried by another force such as water currents or wind. http://photography.nationalgeographic.com/photography/photos/underwater-scenes/basket-sea-star-photography.html

  6. Respiration & Circulation • Animals must have oxygen to release energy within cells. • Some animals uselungs while some aquatic animals usegills to bring in oxygen and get rid of the CO2 byproduct of cellular activity. • Others usediffusion to pass the gases in and out of their body. http://www.tunalab.unh.edu/IMAGES/gills.jpg

  7. Response • Animals must be aware of their environment to • obtain food • seek protection from predators • find mates and reproduce • Animals respond to their environment using specialized nerve cells to • sense external stimuli (light, sound, etc) • process information. • EX The shark using senses.

  8. Reproduction • Animals must reproduce to maintain the species. • Most reproduce sexually using sperm and an egg. • Some can reproduce asexually(from just one parent). http://z.about.com/d/biology/1/0/-/2/pbear.jpg

  9. Animal Body Symmetry • Radial symmetry – arrangement of body parts around a central point • EX starfish • Bilateral symmetry – arrangement of body parts along a plane • EX heart, centipede). • Asymmetry – lack of symmetry • EX sponge http://www.biologycorner.com/resources/symmetry_comparison.gif

  10. Invertebrates vs. Vertebrates • The animal kingdom is divided into two main groups: • Invertebrates (97%)– without backbones • Vertebrates (3%) – with backbones http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/revisewise/images/science/liv03b/03bfimg1.gif

  11. Invertebrate Phyla • Porifera (sponge) • Cnidaria (sea anemone) • Platyhelminthes (flatworm) • Nematoda (roundworm) • Annelida (segmented worm-earthworm) • Mollusca (snail) • Echinodermata (sea star) • Arthropoda (butterfly, crustaceans)