“...People are disturbed not by things, but by their perception of things…”- Epictetus - STRESS NURS 310 by Sandra Saylor, RN
STRESS: What is it?Job Stress: An epidemic • “80% of workers feel stress on the job, nearly half say they need help in learning how to manage stress and 42% say their coworkers need such help; • 14% of respondents had felt like striking a coworker in the past year, but didn't; • 25% have felt like screaming or shouting because of job stress, 10% are concerned about an individual at work they fear could become violent; • 9% are aware of an assault or violent act in their workplace and 18% had experienced some sort of threat or verbal intimidation in the past year” (American Institute of Stress).
Different Kinds of Stress • Acute – most common; deadlines, traffic GI upset, headache, heart palpitations, muscular problems • Episodic Acute – “worry warts” & “Type A” personalities Tension headaches, migraines, hypertension, chest pain, heart disease • Chronic – poverty, dysfunctional families Breakdown, suicide, violence, heart attack, stroke, cancers Miller, L., Smith, A., The stress solution. American Psychological Association. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/helpcenter/stresskinds.aspx, Ph.D.
Discrimination and Stress • Sexism • Racism • Ageism “The solution to this entails changes in policies, values and belief systems.” (Pender, 2006, p. 208).
Culture Differences lead to Stress • Whites • Blacks • Hispanics Mulia, N., Ye, Y., (2008). Social disadvantage, stress, and alcohol use among black, hispanic, and white Americans: findings from the 2005 U.S. national alcohol survey http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2583375/ Photo: http://www.fotosearch.com/IMP180/1525r-78118/
Older & CalmerPercentage of Adults Who Report “a Lot” of Stress (by Age)* * Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Stress & Gender • Women are more likely than men to report to having a great deal of stress (28% vs. 20%) • Married Women report higher levels of stress than single women (33% vs. 22%) Gender and Stress. American Pyschological Association. (2009). Apa.org/newpress/releases/stress-exec-summary pdf.
Stress Around the World STRESS OF AFFLUENT CONSUMERS % stressed at least several times a week Global 55% France 54% USA 66% Mexico 51% Australia 63% Italy 49% Japan 60% German 42% Canada 58% Brazil 35% UK 54% Hong Kong 31% Source: http://www.americanexpress.com/
Unhealthy Responses to Stress • Caffeine • Alcohol • Smoking • Spending too much • Eating too much • Anger Scott, E. (December 31, 2009). Unhealthy responses to stress and how these bad habits affect you. http://stress.about.com/od/unhealthybehaviors/a/bad_habit.htm
How to Manage Stress • Time Management • Avoid Excessive Change • Enhance Self Image • Increase Assertiveness • Set Realistic Goals • Exercise • Counseling • Medications Pender, N. (2006). Health promotion in nursing practice. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson. Medline Plus. National Institute of Health Retrieved from: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/stress.html#cat57
Complementary/Alternative Ways to Manage Stress • Yoga • Imagery • Massage • Meditation • Music • Aromatherapy Pender, N. (2006). Health promotion in nursing practice. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson. Milner, P. (2011). Your Spritual World. http://yourspiritualworld.com/blog/alternative-ways-to-deal-with-stress/WebMd. (March 20, 2011). http://www.webmd.com/cancer/tc/ncicdr0000458089-overview
Health Disparities & Stress Ethnicity- Discrimination Lower Income levels Lower Education levels These populations may have less access to care, lower income levels and lower education levels. These factors may contribute to these populations having less of an ability to deal with stress on an individual level. At a social level these populations may deal with hostile environments on a daily basis. They may live in unsafe neighborhoods that do not have services that other neighborhoods have (Arthur, 2007, p. 60).
Community Health Models • “The concept of empowerment refers to a process by which people and communities gain mastery over their lives” (Pender, 2006, p. 77). Safe neighborhoods Safe work places Collaboration of resources Support groups
Nurses Are Advocates • Nurses help patients by giving comfort through education and collaboration • Nurses give referrals to social workers, and counselors.
American Institute of Stress. Stress. Retrieved from http://www.stress.org/ American Pyschological Association. (2009). Gender and stress. Retrieved from http://Apa.org/newpress/releases/stress-exec-summary pdf. Arthur, C. (2007). A little rain each day: psychological stress and health disparities. California Journal of Health Promotions. Health.com. Retrieved from http://tools.health.search?qls+stress&x=32&y=12.com. Jayson, S. (May 18, 2010). USA Today. Daily stress and worry plummet after age 50. Retrieved from http://www.usatoday.com/news/health 2010-05-1stress18online_ST_N.htm. Medline Plus. National Institute of Health Retrieved from: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/stress.html#cat57 Miller, L., Smith, A., The stress solution. American Psychological Association. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/helpcenter/stress-kinds.aspx. Milner, P. (August, 22, 2008). Your spiritual world.com Retrieved from http://yourspiritualworld.com/blog/alternative-ways-to-deal- withstress/ Mulia, N., Ye, Y. (2008). Social disadvantage, stress, and alcohol use among black, hispanic, and white Americans: findings from the 2005 U.S. national alcohol survey. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2583375/ Pender, N. (2006). Health promotion in nursing practice. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson, Inc. Scott, E. (December 31, 2009). Unhealthy responses to stress and how these bad habits affect you. About.com. Retrieved from http://stress.about.com/od/unhealthybehaviour/a/bad_habit. United States Department of Agriculture.(July 22, 2008). Biomarkers of psychological stress in health disparities research.Retrieved from http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publications.htm?seq_no_115=201729 WebMD. Aromatherapy and essential oils – overview. Retrieved from http://www.wbmd.com/cancer/tc/ncicdr0000458089-overview. References