Neuro-Jeopardy! Created by: Beven Livingston, Becky Huot, & Wendy Hasenkamp Graduate Students Emory University Graduate Program in Neuroscience Edited by: Jordan Rose Outreach Coordinator Center for Behavioral Neuroscience Please send questions or comments to email@example.com
Instructions • On the Jeopardy selection screen, contestant chooses one of the dollar amounts in a category (cannot select those previously chosen - darker color) • An answer will be presented and contestants must formulate the correct question to the answer presented • Once a contestant has formulated a question, click the ENTER key to move ahead • The correct question is presented in the next slide; Click the ENTER key to move ahead • More information on the topic is presented in slides following the slide with the correct question • When the BACK key appears in the bottom right of the slide screen, click BACK to return to the Jeorpardy selection screen and continue the game.
Neuro-Jeopardy! Common Potpourri What’s that When it goes Bonds for? wrong $200 $200 $200 $200 $400 $400 $400 $400 $600 $600 $600 $600 $800 $800 $800 $800
Vincent van Gogh Kurt Cobain Ted Turner Jim Carrey Winston Churchill Harrison Ford Charles Dickens Robin Williams Monica Seles Emily Dickinson Sting Roseanne COMMON BONDS - 200 A disease affecting the following people:
UNIPOLAR major depression Affects 17.6 million Americans/year Affects 1/5 women Affects 1/15 men Treatment cost $30 billion in 1990 BIPOLAR manic depression Affects 2-3 million Americans/year men and women equally affected treated with Lithium What is Depression? There are two major types of depression:
Unipolar (major) persistent sadness loss of interest loss of energy changes in appetite low self-esteem changes in sleep poor concentration school/work absences Bipolar (manic) Recurrent episodes of mania and depression euphoric mood irritability racing thoughts excessive spending decreased sleep Symptoms of Depression
GENETIC most important predisposing factor vulnerability to depression vulnerability to environmental factors ENVIRONMENTAL stress (major/chronic) serious loss chronic illness separation chemical dysfunction Causes of Depression Back >
COMMON BONDS - 400 A disease affecting the following people: • Michael J. Fox • Muhammad Ali • Pope John Paul • Janet Reno
movement disorder slowly progressive tremor at rest Akinesia: inability to move Bradykinesia: slow movements postural reflex impairment affects over 1 million Americans Avg. age of onset: 58 40% of PD patients are under age 60 Decrease in neurotransmitter dopamine What is Parkinson’s Disease? Back >
disease of aging gradual memory loss dementia affects 1 million Americans Ronald Reagan COMMON BONDS - 600
EPIDEMIOLOGY Usually does not occur before age 45 rare before age 65 affects 11% of people over 65 unknown cause DIAGNOSIS Memory loss Rule out other possible factors Head injury, PD, Huntington’s, Stroke, tumor, infection, metabolic diseases Post mortem histology What is Alzheimer’s Disease?
Alzheimer’s Histology • Loss of neurons • Change in neuronal morphology • Accumulation of ß-amyloid protein “plaques” (extracellular) • Cytoskeletal abnormalities (intracellular), “neurofibrillary tangles”
Normal Aging - T1 axial Normal Young Adult Brain Normal 88-yr old Brain normal enlarged Periventricular white matter hyperintensity Compare ventricular volumes relative to the whole brain mass
Alzheimer’s Disease - T1 coronal 88 yr. old w/ moderately advanced Alzheimer’s Disease Normal * Hippocampal shrinkage Ventricular enlargement Cortical shrinkage (increased space around the brain) Back >
Drew Barrymore Mickey Mantle Ernest Hemingway William Faulkner John Steinbeck COMMON BONDS - 800 A disease affecting the following people:
SYMPTOMS depressed mood appetite disturbance memory deficits psychomotor agitation self deprecation COMORBIDITY mood disorder anxiety antisocial personality disorder What is Alcoholism?
ALCOHOL 10-20% 5:1 male:female 1/10 drinkers develops problem OTHER DRUGS Marijuana 4% Stimulants 2% Sedatives 1% Heroin 0.7% Hallucinogens 0.4% Cocaine 0.2% Lifetime Prevalence
Why certain drugs? Reinforcing properties Reward pathway in the brain Why certain people? Genetics Personality Environment (stress) Comorbidity Questions about Drug Abuse Back >
POTPOURRI - 200 • The major cell type of the nervous system
What is the Neuron? • a neuron consists of a cell body (C), an axon (B), dendrites (D) and a myelin sheath (A) • message transmission between neurons occurs through neurotransmitters (serotonin, dopamine) • learning occurs as connections between neurons are strengthened Back >
POTPOURRI - 400 • The part of the body injured by actor Christopher Reeves.
What is the Spinal Cord? • When the spinal cord is damaged, information travelling along descending motor tracts and ascending sensory tracts is blocked. • Motor and sensory deficits can be predicted from the level and location of the lesion in the spinal cord.
Spinal Cord Injury (SCI):The Big Picture • Estimated 250,000 SCI people in the U.S. • 11,000 new injuries reported annually • Paraplegia (paralysis of legs) affects 55% of the SCI population • Quadriplegia (paralysis of all extremities) affects 44% of the SCI population
Causes of SCI in the U.S. • Vehicular Accidents 40% • Violence 25% • Falls 21% • Diving accidents 10% • Work/Sports Related 4%
Age Distribution of SCI Population • Approximately 60% of SCI population were injured between 15-30 years of age • Most frequently occurring age is 19 years. • Male 70% • Female 30% • Ninety percent of SCI population lives normal lifespan
Costs Associated with SCI • In 1992, approximately 10,000 SCI’s were reported. • Estimated lifetime costs associated with these SCI’s are $10 Billion. • Individual suffering and loss to society are impossible to calculate. Back >
POTPOURRI - 600 • An immediate muscular response to a specific stimulus. Like when the doctor hits your kneecap with a hammer.
What is aReflex? Tapping a tendon to elicit a contraction of the muscle can determine the status of the nerve that supplies that muscle. Back >
POTPOURRI - 800 • The part of the retina that has no photoreceptors. (optic _______ )
Blind Spot Back >
WHAT’S THAT FOR? - 200 • The largest structure of the brain, it is divided into two hemispheres and each containing four lobes.
Cerebral Cortex • Frontal Lobe = Motor • Parietal Lobe = Sensory • Temporal Lobe = Hearing, Language • Occipital Lobe = Vision Back >
WHAT’S THAT FOR? - 400 • The part of the brain that is composed of the midbrain, the pons, and the medulla.
What is the Brain Stem? • Controls heart beat and respiration (breathing). • Contains the major ascending and descending pathways. • It is a link between the cerebral cortex, the cerebellum, and the spinal cord. • Contain the cranial nerve nuclei 12 C.N.
Midbrain Medulla Pons Back >
WHAT’S THAT FOR? - 600 • A tennis ball-sized structure at the base of the brain that is important for coordination of movement and balance.
What is the Cerebellum? • 2 main functions: • Coordinates skilled voluntary movements by influencing muscle activity • Helps to control equilibrium and muscle tone through connections with the vestibular system
Cerebellum • When the cerebellum is damaged (commonly from tumors, trauma or alcohol), patients exhibit: • Hypotonia (diminished muscle tone) • Ataxia (loss of coordinated, smooth movements) • balance • Intention tremor (a tremor that arises when voluntary movements are attempted) Back >
WHAT’S THAT FOR? - 800 • The part of the brain that controls HOMEOSTASIS: • Thermoregulation • Circadian rhythms • Appetite control • Stress Response • Reproduction
What is the Hypothalamus? • Fight or Flight Response • Blood pressure control • Endocrine Control • Reproduction • Stress Back >
WHEN IT GOES WRONG - 200 • The mental disorder portrayed by Dustin Hoffman as Raymond in Rain Man
What is Autism? • Developmental Disorder • Impaired communication (verbal/nonverbal) • Impaired social interactions • Behavior - stereotyped, self injury • Hypersensitivity of senses (light, touch) • Large variability in symptoms • Not a mental illness
PREVALENCE 1/500 children 3-4 times more common in boys >1/2 million people in US today 3rd most common developmental disorder CAUSE Not known Not psychological Genetic link Major area of research Autism
10% of autistics have spectacular abilities (like Rain Man’s ability to count the number of toothpicks that fell on the floor just by looking at the mess for a second). Skills like math, music, memory, and art are extremely advanced while social skills remain impaired. less than 1% of non-autistic population has these abilities underlying changes in brain unknown; major area of research Autistic Savant Back >
WHEN IT GOES WRONG - 400 • The neuromuscular disease named after an older baseball player for the New York Yankee’s. It is fatal and has no known cause or cure.
EPIDEMIOLOGY uncommon 4 to 6/100,000 men and women equally age 40-70 SIGNS & SYMPTOMS degeneration of motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord muscle weakness and atrophy doesn’t affect intellect, or sensory What isAmyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (Lou Gehrig’s disease)?
Neurons in ALS Back >