Download
chapter 14 n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Chapter 14 PowerPoint Presentation

Chapter 14

775 Vues Download Presentation
Télécharger la présentation

Chapter 14

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Chapter 14 Customer-Profitability Analysis andSales-Variance Analysis

  2. CCs for chapter 14 • 14-21 (=11.14-20) 8% • 14-23 (=11.14-22) 10% • 14-25 (=11.14-24) 10% • 14-33 (8%) • 14-35 (5%)

  3. Cost Allocation • Meaning • Assigning indirect costs to cost objects • These costs are not traced • Indirect costs often comprise a large percentage of Total Overall Costs • Purposes • To provide information for economic decisions • To motivate managers and other employees • To justify costs or compute reimbursement amounts • To measure income and assets for reporting to tax authorities

  4. Six-Function Value Chain • Traditional Life Cycle approach may not yield the costs necessary to meet the four-purpose criteria for cost allocation • Costs necessary for decision making may pull costs from some or all of these six functions

  5. Criteria for Cost-Allocation Decisions • Cause and Effect – variables are identified that cause resources to be consumed • Most credible to operating managers • Integral part of ABC • Benefits Received – the beneficiaries of the outputs of the cost object are charged with costs in proportion to the benefits received • Fairness (Equity) – the basis for establishing a price satisfactory to the government and its suppliers • Cost allocation here is viewed as a “reasonable” or “fair” means of establishing selling price • Ability to Bear – costs are allocated in proportion to the cost object’s ability to bear them • Generally, larger or more profitable objects receive proportionally more of the allocated costs

  6. Customer Revenues and Customer Costs • Customer-Profitability Analysis is the reporting and analysis of revenues earned from customers and costs incurred to earn those revenues • An analysis of customer differences in revenues and costs can provide insight into why differences exist in the operating income earned from different customers • Customer Revenues • Price discounting is the reduction of selling prices to encourage increases in customer purchases • Lower sales price is a tradeoff for larger sales volumes • Discounts should be tracked by customer and salesperson • Customer Cost Hierarchy categorizes costs related to customers into different cost pools on the basis of different: • types of drivers • cost-allocation bases • degrees of difficulty in determining cause-and-effect or benefits-received relationships

  7. Customer Cost Hierarchy Example • Customer output unit-level costs • Customer batch-level costs • Customer-sustaining costs • Distribution-channel costs • Corporate-sustaining costs

  8. Other Factors in Evaluating Customer Profitability • Likelihood of customer retention • Potential for sales growth • Long-run customer profitability • Increases in overall demand from having well-known customers • Ability to learn from customers

  9. Sales Variances • Level 1: Static-budget variance – the difference between an actual result and the static-budgeted amount • Level 2: Flexible-budget variance – the difference between an actual result and the flexible-budgeted amount • Level 2: Sales-volume variance • Level 3: Sales-quantity variance • Level 3: Sales-mix variance

  10. Sales-Mix Variance • Measures shifts between selling more or less of higher or lower profitable products

  11. Sales-Quantity Variance

  12. Market-Share Variance

  13. Market-Size Variance

  14. Market-Share and Market-Size Variances • Limitation: reliable information on the actual size and share of various markets is not always available • These are considered Level 4 variances (a decomposition of the Sales-Quantity variance

  15. flex. budget = actual units, actual mix, budgeted contribution Summary of Variances Level 1 Static-Budget Variance actual – budgeted revenue Level 2 Flexible-Budget Variance actual – flex.budget Sales-Volume Variance static – flexible budget Level 3 Sales-MixVariance actual units, actual – budgeted mix Sales-QuantityVariance actual – budgeted units Level 4 Market-ShareVariance actual size actual – budgeted share Market-SizeVariance actual – budgeted size Budgeted contribution margin Budgeted Sales Mix

  16. 14-21 • Customer-level operating income? • Profitability Rank order of customers • Options for customer relationship management

  17. 14-23 • sales volume variance for each type of ticket and in total • sales quantity and sales mix variances • comment

  18. 14-25 • Total sales volume variance, total sales mix variance, total sales quantity variance • Inferences?

  19. 14-32/33

  20. 14-34/35

  21. Natural Nutrients Bakery of Springfield produces three flavors of cat morsels that have budgeted and actual sales data for a bag of a dozen of their cat morsels as follows for December 2005: Budgeted Data Actual Data PheasantriesDairy DewSea ShellsPheasantriesDairy DewSea Shells Bags 7,200 4,800 4,000 10,800 3,600 7,200 Price per bag $2.50 $4.00 $5.00 $2.00 $3.00 $7.50 Revenues $18,000 $19,200 $20,000 $21,600 $10,800 $54,000 Total revenue $57,200 $86,400 According to company forecasts, they were budgeting to earn a 25% market share in total units (bags) of specially prepared cat treats sold in December 2005 in Springfield. Reliable industry sources indicate that the total number of bags of cat treats sold for December 2005 in Springfield was 72,000. 1.       The amount of Natural Nutrients Bakery’s sales-volume variance for December 2005 is a. $3,600 F. b. $20,200 F. c. $20,020 F. d. $29,200 F.

  22. Natural Nutrients Bakery of Springfield produces three flavors of cat morsels that have budgeted and actual sales data for a bag of a dozen of their cat morsels as follows for December 2005: Budgeted Data Actual Data PheasantriesDairy DewSea ShellsPheasantriesDairy DewSea Shells Bags 7,200 4,800 4,000 10,800 3,600 7,200 Price per bag $2.50 $4.00 $5.00 $2.00 $3.00 $7.50 Revenues $18,000 $19,200 $20,000 $21,600 $10,800 $54,000 Total revenue $57,200 $86,400 According to company forecasts, they were budgeting to earn a 25% market share in total units (bags) of specially prepared cat treats sold in December 2005 in Springfield. Reliable industry sources indicate that the total number of bags of cat treats sold for December 2005 in Springfield was 72,000.   2.      The sales-quantity variance for December 2005 for Natural Nutrients Bakery is a. $3,600 F. b. $20,200 F. c. $20,020 F. d. $29,200 F.

  23. Natural Nutrients Bakery of Springfield produces three flavors of cat morsels that have budgeted and actual sales data for a bag of a dozen of their cat morsels as follows for December 2005: Budgeted Data Actual Data PheasantriesDairy DewSea ShellsPheasantriesDairy DewSea Shells Bags 7,200 4,800 4,000 10,800 3,600 7,200 Price per bag $2.50 $4.00 $5.00 $2.00 $3.00 $7.50 Revenues $18,000 $19,200 $20,000 $21,600 $10,800 $54,000 Total revenue $57,200 $86,400 According to company forecasts, they were budgeting to earn a 25% market share in total units (bags) of specially prepared cat treats sold in December 2005 in Springfield. Reliable industry sources indicate that the total number of bags of cat treats sold for December 2005 in Springfield was 72,000. 3.      The sales-mix variance for December 2005 for Natural Nutrients Bakery is a. $8,600 F. b. $8,760 F. c. $160 F. d. $180 F.

  24. Natural Nutrients Bakery of Springfield produces three flavors of cat morsels that have budgeted and actual sales data for a bag of a dozen of their cat morsels as follows for December 2005: Budgeted Data Actual Data PheasantriesDairy DewSea ShellsPheasantriesDairy DewSea Shells Bags 7,200 4,800 4,000 10,800 3,600 7,200 Price per bag $2.50 $4.00 $5.00 $2.00 $3.00 $7.50 Revenues $18,000 $19,200 $20,000 $21,600 $10,800 $54,000 Total revenue $57,200 $86,400 According to company forecasts, they were budgeting to earn a 25% market share in total units (bags) of specially prepared cat treats sold in December 2005 in Springfield. Reliable industry sources indicate that the total number of bags of cat treats sold for December 2005 in Springfield was 72,000. 4.     Natural Nutrients Bakery experienced a market-size variance for December 2005 of a. $7,150 F. b. $8,000 F. c. $11,440 F. d. $11,600 F.

  25. Natural Nutrients Bakery of Springfield produces three flavors of cat morsels that have budgeted and actual sales data for a bag of a dozen of their cat morsels as follows for December 2005: Budgeted Data Actual Data PheasantriesDairy DewSea ShellsPheasantriesDairy DewSea Shells Bags 7,200 4,800 4,000 10,800 3,600 7,200 Price per bag $2.50 $4.00 $5.00 $2.00 $3.00 $7.50 Revenues $18,000 $19,200 $20,000 $21,600 $10,800 $54,000 Total revenue $57,200 $86,400 According to company forecasts, they were budgeting to earn a 25% market share in total units (bags) of specially prepared cat treats sold in December 2005 in Springfield. Reliable industry sources indicate that the total number of bags of cat treats sold for December 2005 in Springfield was 72,000. 5.      The market-share variance for December 2003 for Natural Nutrients Bakery is a. $20,020 F. b. $12,870 F. c. $11,600 F. d. $11,440 F.