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Chapter 14

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Chapter 14

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  1. Chapter 14 Foreign & Defense Policy

  2. What is Foreign Policy? • Nation’s external goals and techniques/strategies used to achieve them • American foreign policy includes national security policy, which is policy designed to protect the independence and the political and economic integrity of the United States

  3. Tools of Foreign Policy • Diplomacy = process by which states carry on relations with each other (can also mean settling conflicts among nations through peaceful means) • Economic aid = assistance to other nations through grants, loans or credits to buy the assisting nation’s products • Technical assistance = sending individuals with expertise in agriculture, engineering or business to aid other nations

  4. Competing Views of Foreign Policy • Moral idealism = views nations as willing to cooperate and agree on moral standards for conduct; tied to liberal institutionalism, international organizations (e.g., UN, WTO) • Political realism = sees each nation acting principally in its own interest; tied to realpolitik; emphasis on anarchy at the international system level; maximizing power, influence; use of alliances; arms control • US foreign policy consists of both strains

  5. Challenges in World Politics • Terrorism • Nuclear proliferation (along with proliferation of other WMD’s) • China – increasing power and influence; 21st Century will be China’s • Global economy – dependence on oil, attempts to rationalize world economy • Regional conflicts – ongoing; persistent

  6. Powers of the President in Foreign Policy • Constitutional Powers (expressed and inherent/implied) • Solemnly swears to “preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States” • Commander in chief of the military • Make treaties (which are later ratified by the Senate) • Executive agreements • Appoints ambassadors

  7. Powers of the President in Foreign Policy, (cont.) • Informal powers • Access to information • Legislative leader who can influence Congress’s foreign policy • Influence public opinion • Commit nation morally to a course of action

  8. Other Sources of Foreign Policy • Department of State • Supervises relations with other independent nations and with multinational organizations like the United Nations • Staffs embassies • Power has declined since World War II • Has “negative constituents,” Americans who oppose aspects of U.S. foreign policy

  9. Other Sources of Foreign Policy (cont.) • National Security Council • Advises the president on policies relating to national security • Provides continuity from one presidential administration to the next

  10. Other Sources of Foreign Policy (cont.) • Intelligence community = includes government organizations involved in information gathering about the capabilities and intentions of other countries • Some agencies in the intelligence community include • the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) • National Security Agency (NSA) • Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) • Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)

  11. Other Sources of Foreign Policy (cont.) • Department of Defense • Largest federal department, created in 1947 • Designed to bring all military activities under the jurisdiction of a single agency headed by a civil secretary of defense • Size of military significantly reduced • Seen reductions in civilian employees

  12. Other Sources of Foreign Policy (cont.) • Congress • Elite opinion • Mass opinion • attentive public = 10-20% of the population that pays attention to foreign policy issues • Military-industrial complex = mutually beneficial relationship between armed forces and defense contractors; concern of Eisenhower

  13. Major Foreign Policy Themes • “Negative” foreign policy during 1700 and 1800’s (Isolationism) • Mistrust of Europe • Militarily weak • Shaped by the Monroe Doctrine (no new European colonies in the Western Hemisphere; no European intervention; no US intervention in European affairs) • Spanish–American War and World War I • Seen as temporary entanglements • Lasted from 1898-1918 • Followed by a resurgence of isolationism

  14. Major Foreign Policy Themes, (cont.) • Era of Internationalism • Began with bombing of Pearl Harbor and U.S. entry into World War II • Resulted in significant increases in defense spending • America emerged from World War II with a strengthened economy • America was first nuclear superpower

  15. The Cold War • = Ideological, political, and economic impasse that existed between the U.S. and the USSR following the end of their WWII alliance • U.S. foreign policy dominated by containment, the idea of limiting Communist power to its (then) existing countries (Truman doctrine) • Cuban Missile Crisis (1962) was the closest the superpowers came to direct confrontation • Détente between the U.S. and the Soviet Union occurred in the late 1960’s and early 1970’s

  16. The Cold War (cont.) • During the 1980’s, the Reagan administration lobbied for the development of the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI or “Star Wars”), and also negotiated significant arms control treaties • End of Communist rule in eastern Europe in 1989 • Dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991

  17. Discussion questions • Was the invasion of Iraq justified? • What are the most significant foreign policy challenges facing the world today? • What is the best way to combat terrorism? • Does the executive branch have too much power in determining foreign and military policy? • Why is the “attentive public” so small in the United States?

  18. Hot Links to Selected Internet Resources: • Book’s Companion Site: • Wadsworth’s Political Science Site: • U.S. Department of State: • The Brookings Institution: • Central Intelligence Agency: