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  2. TAKE OFF & CLIMB • Maintain runway centerline • Proper use of rudder • Pitch trimmed for Vy Performance Standards Smoothly apply full power. Maintain centerline with rudder pedals. At 60kts rotate; keep the nose Below the tree line to allow Acceleration to 75kts Maintain 75kts . *full power & nose on the horizon will Result in 75-80 kts At 55kts apply back pressure Property of JTM Aviation,llc

  3. Level off & Cruise Performance Standards • Smooth transition from climb to cruise attitude • Maintain heading • Altitude – 50ft / + 100 ft • Proper use of trim • Use of cruise checklist. Maintain airspeed & full power until reaching assigned altitude. Allow airspeed to accelerate to cruise while maintaining altitude *2500rpm max while accelerating When airspeed stabilizes, set power to 2400rpm while cruising. Lean if needed for best power. Cruise Checklist. Property of JTM Aviation,llc

  4. Reducing Airspeed Performance Standards • Smooth power changes • Proper use of trim • maintain heading & altitude • +100’ / - 50’ altitude 73kts ( L/D max) Best glide 100kts 85kts 55 kts While flying behind the power curve You will need to increase power to fly slower Begin by smoothly reducing power to 2100rpm focus on maintaining enough backpressure to maintain altitude Monitor power setting as airspeed slows ,rpm will drop if you do not increase throttle Property of JTM Aviation ,llc

  5. Descending Performance Standards • proper use of trim & Power • maintain heading • lead level off • altitude + / - 50’ Begin restoring power 50’ prior to desired altitude; or lead level off by 10% of your descent rate *500fpm With A/C trimmed for desired airspeed, smoothly reduce power to 2100rpm* The plane will begin descending at the trimmed airspeed with little to no back pressure needed **Restore power to starting rpm. This will stop the descent and resume previous level flight airspeed Property of JTM Aviation , llc

  6. Power Off Stalls Performance Standards • maintain heading • smooth power control • steady pitch control on recovery When stall occurs, lower the nose enough to break the stall ( horn off) . While smoothly applying full power. Remove 3rd notch of flaps immediately remaining flaps may be removed slowly as airspeed and altitude permit. Reduce power to 2100rpm At 90kts 1st notch of flaps At 75kts, reduce power to 1500 rpm and add remaining flaps 1 notch at a time then reduce power to idle and wait for the stall Property of JTM Aviation , llc

  7. Power on Stalls Performance Standards • maintain heading • proper pitch control • minimal altitude loss on recovery At 1st stall indication lower nose to break the stall and increase airspeed. Maintain heading with rudder At 75kts pitch up to approximately 15deg while increasing power to full. Start by reducing airspeed to 75kts *no flaps ( simulate takeoff) Property of JTM Aviation , llc

  8. Accelerated Stalls Performance Standards • maintain coordinated flight • smooth power use • no secondary stall *At 1st indication; simultaneously lower nose ,level wings & increase power. Remove flaps in the usual sequence * Be sure to keep the plane in coordinated flight with the rudders Reduce speed to 65kts with throttle and flaps At 65 kts : power goes to idle initiate moderate bank & hold altitude & wait for stall. Property of JTM Aviation , llc

  9. Steep Turns Bank angle 45-55 degrees Performance Standards • Altitude +/- 100’ • Roll out on start heading • Coordinated rudder use Property of JTM Aviation , llc

  10. Engine Failure in Flight • A • B • C At point of failure initiate ABC & Immediately retract flaps and hold altitude irspeed = 73 est place to land; locate hecklist; • flaps up • electric fuel pump on • switch fuel tanks • check carb heat • check mixture for proper setting • check primer ( ensure it’s locked) • check magnetos If an off field landing must be made, touchdown with slowest practical airspeed; switch fuel off if time permits Property of JTM Aviation , llc

  11. Normal Landing Performance Standards • stabilized airspeeds • properly trimmed • power used for adjustments • touchdown at stall Downwind 2100rpm 1 notch of flaps (10deg) 80kt While turning base, set 1500rpm* Flaps 25deg (2nd notch) 75kts *1500 rpm is a starting point Adjust as needed Touchdown on mains first Hold controls in place until aerodynamic control is done Final : power as needed to maintain glide path 3rd notch of flaps * 65kts Property of JTM Aviation , llc

  12. Crosswind Landing Performance Standards Wind Direction • Proper drift control • Keep wheels aligned with centerline • Touchdown on upwind main wheel 1st Control Drift by lowering the upwind wing. Use rudder control to align the nose with the centerline of the runway Pitch & Power control will be the same as with a normal landing Property of JTM Aviation , llc

  13. Soft field Takeoff Performance Standards • proper elevator control during takeoff roll and liftoff • safe transition to desired speed in ground effect ( no sinking ) • proper judgment on flap retraction • minimal braking Climb out normally slowly retracting flaps as airspeed and altitude permit Flaps 25deg & full aft elevator as you enter the runway. Continuously increase power to full as you roll down the runway Liftoff at the slowest practical airspeed, then lower nose to accelerate in ground effect to Vx or Vy as appropriate Property of JTM Aviation , llc

  14. Soft field landing Performance Standards • proper use of power to control touchdown • minimal brake usage • maintain full aft elevator until clear of the runway Begin with a normal power off approach Carry power as needed throughout the landing to allow for the lightest touchdown possible. When you begin the round out Increase power to hold the plane off the ground Longer than normal After landing hold full aft elevator control until clear of the runway & use minimal braking. Power as needed. Property of JTM Aviation , llc

  15. Short field Takeoff Performance Standards • Use all available runway • full power before brake release • maintain centerline • Vx climb before Vy Initial climb at Vx until clear of obstacles Accelerate to Vy, slowly retracting flaps when altitude permits Use all available runway, flaps 25deg, full power before brake realease Property of JTM Aviation , llc

  16. Short field Landing Performance Standards • Stabilized approach ( 65kts) • Proper power for desired airspeed • touchdown within 200’ of target ( not before ) • maintain controls after touchdown • do not lock brakes Approach at 65kts with full flaps As you round out, manage power to cross your target at 50kts Once you’ve landed , retract flaps, then apply maximum braking while holding full aft elevator control. Property of JTM Aviation , llc

  17. Go-Arounds Performance Standards • commit to go around • proper pitch control • no sinking when retracting flaps • maintain position over runway Decision point Immediately check flaps for no more than 25deg Climb at appropriate airspeed, slowly retracting flaps after positive rate of climb is established, and speed and altitude permit Apply full power while raising nose away from ground, but not above treeline / horizon. Property of JTM Aviation , llc

  18. Speeds and Limits • Vso 44 • Vs 50 • Vx 63 • Vy 75 • Vglide 73 • Vfe 103 • Va 111 • Vno 126 • Vne 160 • Total Fuel 50 gal ( 25 / 25 ) • usable fuel 48 gal ( 24 / 24 ) • 150HP @ 2700rpm • *9Gal/hr for planning • 11:1 glide ratio • 200lbs in Baggage compartment • recommended minimum field length 2500’ • For gross weight operations Property of JTM Aviation , llc