Authentic Leadership Presentation by Prof. D. Frear Wilkes University
Leadership • 1834 introduced to characterize positional power in a political context • The ability to influence others – 1930’s (Terry, 1993).
Leadership Qualities- Greeks • Justice and Judgment • Wisdom and Council • Shrewdness and Cunning • Valor and Action (Terry, 1993).
Leadership (Bennis) • Leadership is all about innovating and initiating. • Management is about copying and managing the status quo. • Leadership is creative, adaptive, and agile. • Leadership looks at the horizon, not just at the bottom line.
Leadership (Bennis) • A good manager does things right. • A leader does the right things. • Doing the right things implies a goal, • a direction, an objective, a vision, • a dream, a path, a reach.
Leadership (Bennis) • Managing is about efficiency. • Leading is about effectiveness. • Managing is about how. • Leading is about what and why. • Management is about systems, controls, procedures, policies, structure. • Leadership is about trust and about people.
Personal Leadership • Personal Leadership – Possesses the characteristics necessary to lead others (Terry, 1993).
Team Leadership • Ability to develop teams of others • Ability to improve team’s performance by matching leadership style to individual team members (Terry, 1993).
Positional Leadership • Granted by organization • Worked through the ranks (Terry, 1993).
Functional Leadership • Attentive to change • Leadership shaped by context – not traits • Adapts to survive (Terry, 1993).
Transactional Leadership • Involves contingent reinforcement. Followers are motivated by the leaders' promises, praise, and reward • Or, they are corrected by negative feedback, reproof, threats, or disciplinary actions (Bass, 1985).
Transformational Leadership • Four components: • Charisma or idealized influence (attributed or behavioral) • Inspirational motivation • Intellectual stimulation • Individualized consideration (Bass, 1985).
Ethical Leadership • How does the leader use power? • Ethics is a guiding philosophy • Ethics is a set of principles of conduct governing an individual or group • Ethics involves moral approval or disapproval (Merriam Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary, 1998).
Ethical Leadership Kohlberg’s Framework • Liberty • Equality • Dignity • Justice • Human Rights (Terry, 1993). Ethical Leadership must learn to apply these concepts to followers
Leaders as Facilitators • Add meaning • Give direction • Help others achieve goals
Leaders take Action • Mission – a purpose, goal, vision, intention • Power – decision, commitment, passion, and volition that energizes mission • Structure – Plans that order mission accomplishment • Resources – Anything useful to accomplish the mission (Terry, 1993).
Leaders take Action • Existence – Ecological and historical setting of the action • Meaning – Values, reasons, and rationalizations that justify a particular action • Fulfillment – The completed act (Terry, 1993).
The Action Wheel (Terry, 1993). POWER MISSION POWER STRUCTURE MISSION Fulfillment STRUCTURE MEANING RESOURCES MEANING EXISTENCE RESOURCES EXISTENCE
Authentic - Defined • From the Greek meaning one who accomplishes • To act, to embody, to engage, and to participate in life • Fidelity, actuality and fact, compatibility with a certain source or usage, a complete sincerity without feigning hypocrisy. (Webster’s New International Unabridged Dictionary)
Authentic - Defined • Guided and judged by genuineness and trustworthiness; sincerity by purity of intent
Authentic Leadership • Upholds formal decision making versus secret pacts • Upholds ethical foundations • Open agendas versus hidden agendas • Resists oppression vs terrorizing the innocent • Do not intentionally mislead followers • Maintains common purpose
Authentic Leadership • Show up • Engage
Authenticity & Ethical Principles Framed by the Action Wheel(Terry, 1993)
Five Touchstones of Authentic Leadership • Touchstone One: Know Yourself Authentically • Touchstone Two: Listen Authentically. • Touchstone Three: Express Authentically. • Touchstone Four: Appreciate Authentically. • Touchstone Five: Serve Authentically. (Cashman 1998).
Touchstone One: Know Yourself Authentically • “Know thyself,” appears in the writings of Ovid, Cicero, and Socrates, in the sayings of the Seven Sages of Greece, on the entrance to the temple of Apollo, in Christian writings and in Eastern texts. • If we want to be more effective with others, we first need to become more effective with ourselves. • Practice being what you wish others to become.
Touchstone Two: Listen Authentically. • Listening authentically is centered in the principle of psychological reciprocity: • to influence others, we must first be open to their influence. • Authentic listening is about being generous—listening with a giving attitude that seeks to bring forth the contribution in someone, versus listening with our limiting assessments, opinions and judgments. • Authentic listening is about being open to the purpose and learning coming to us through the other person.
Touchstone Three: Express Authentically • Authentic expression is a delicate subject for many leaders. Integrity goes far beyond telling the truth. Integrity means total congruence between who we are and what we do. • Authentic expression is the true voice of the leader. We speak from our character and it creates trust, synergy and connection with everyone around us.
Touchstone Four: Appreciate Authentically. • As leaders we tend to do too much and appreciate too little. Love is an extreme case of appreciation. • Appreciation is one type of self-expression that creates value. • It energizes people and makes people want to exceed their goals and perceived limits. • Criticism may get short-term results but usually doesn’t add long-term value. What it does add is fear and insecurity.
Touchstone Five: Serve Authentically • Ultimately, a leader is not judged by how well he or she leads, but by how well he or she serves. • We serve our organization. We serve our people. We serve our customers. We serve our marketplace. We serve our community. We serve our family. We serve our relationships. The real job is to serve all the constituencies and to appreciate genuinely the fact the only through our interdependence with others do we create value.