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  1. Graphics Any visual form of presenting information M. Reber © 4/7/2009

  2. Overview Types of Graphics Types of Illustrations Ways to Integrate Graphics

  3. Overview Types of Graphics Types of Illustrations Ways to Integrate Graphics

  4. Types of Graphics • Tables • Graphs • Charts • Illustrations

  5. Types of Graphics:Tables • Tables are rows and columns of numbers, words, or symbols • They provide efficient means of presenting comparative information • Information that is suitable for a table generally has two comparative axes • Tables should have headings for columns and/or rows • Check for information in your text that could be presented as a table • Tables should be introduced within the text to provide context

  6. Name Email Address Phone #1 Phone # 2 1. John Smith 408-000-0000 650-000-0000 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Types of Graphics:Tables (cont.)

  7. Types of Graphics:Graphs • Graphs show changes in data over time

  8. Types of Graphics:Charts • Charts plot specific information, such as scientific data • The most common charts are: pie charts and bar charts • Pie charts show percentages of a whole:

  9. Types of Graphics:Charts (cont.) • Bar charts show the same information with the length of each bar representing a percentage or amount:

  10. Types of Graphics:Illustrations • Illustrations give a graphic representation of a thing or action • Common illustrations include: • Objects, parts, features of an object (mechanisms) • Actions or movements (the direction one object needs to be inserted into another) • Orientation or position (CPR positioning) • Concepts or ideas (an organizational chart) • Screen Shots

  11. Overview Types of Graphics Types of Illustrations Ways to Integrate Graphics

  12. Types of Illustrations • Photographs • Drawings • Flowcharts • Diagrams and Schematics • Screen Shots

  13. Figure 4. Removing the back wheel from the bicycle. Figure 5. Using a tire lever to separate the tire from the wheel. Types of Illustrations: Photographs • Provide most detail with picture-perfect representation • Can include unnecessary or distracting detail

  14. Types of Illustrations: Drawings • Often considered the ideal illustration • Suppress unnecessary detail and allow reader to focus on important objects, tools, and actions • Illustrate relationships and concepts photography can not

  15. Import audio and storyboard files Adjust length of audio and video files Add and edit transition effects Create an MPEG movie file Types of Illustrations: Flowcharts and Org Charts • Flowcharts and other conceptual drawings represent more abstract information such as positions within a workflow: • Organizational charts represent hierarchical information such as positions within an organization: Chief Executive Officer Warehouse Manager National Sales Manager Shipping Clerk Warranty Inspector Western Sales Manager Eastern Sales Manager

  16. Types of Illustrations: Diagrams and Schematics • A diagram is a plan, drawing, or outline that explains how something works or the relationship between parts of a whole • A schematic represents the elements of a system using abstract, graphic symbols rather than realistic pictures • Omits all irrelevant details, often rendering the object unrecognizable • May add unrealistic elements to aid comprehension

  17. Types of Illustrations: Screen Shots • Reproduces the screen or dialog box a user sees when operating hardware and software • Verifies to the user that they are in the correct part of the procedure

  18. Overview Types of Graphics Types of Illustrations Ways to Integrate Graphics

  19. Ways to Integrate Graphics Purposes of Graphics Uses of Graphics Sources of Graphics Format of Graphics Tips on Using Graphics

  20. Purposes of Graphics • Show how something looks or is constructed • Show how to do something • Explain how a process works • Show how something is organized • Help the reader find specific facts • Show relationships • Make a persuasive point

  21. Uses of Graphics • To summarize and condense information • To make information easier to access • To show comparison or contrast • To appeal to right-brained users • To add variety and increase interest • To emphasize important information • To convey quantitative relationships (percentile rankings, trends, etc.) • To communicate internationally

  22. Sources of Graphics • You can find graphics using these sources: • Search on the internet and copy from the web • Use clip art (professional sources only) • You can create graphics by: • Using a digital camera • Creating screen shots • Drawing your own illustrations • Creating graphs and charts using software applications • If you did not create the graphics, remember: • You may need to crop, size, and label the illustrations • You must always give credit for the illustration you copy • Ask permission to use the illustration if necessary

  23. Format of Graphics Use sans serif fonts (Arial, Helvetica, etc.) for flowchart text, figure titles, callout text, and row and column headings in tables Use smaller fonts for items listed above (at least 1 pt. smaller than body text) Use straight lines without arrowheads for callout text, not diagonal lines Use arrowheads to indicate direction only Center text in flowchart boxes vertically/horizontally Adjust individual column width within tables according to text density Introduce most graphics with lead-in text

  24. Tips on Using Graphics • Pick the most appropriate type of graphic for the information you are presenting • Do not include a graphic without a purpose • Make graphics easy to understand and use • Include callouts or captions as necessary • Integrate your graphics with your text