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Nomenclature Scientific Plant Classification

Nomenclature Scientific Plant Classification

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Nomenclature Scientific Plant Classification

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  1. NomenclatureScientific Plant Classification Early Classification Started by the Greek philosopher Theophrastus Classified all plants into annuals, biennials, and perennials, according to life span Herbs, shrubs, and trees, according to their growth habit Modern Taxonomy Modern classification of plants is based on Linnaeus(Carl von Lenné), a 18th century Swedish physician and “the father of taxonomy” who revolutionized the field of plant and animal classification Use of binomial nomenclature - Genus and species for scientific names Use of trinomial nomenclature for horticultural crops Genus, species, and cultivar for cultivated crops

  2. Scientific NamesRed Delicious Apple ClassificationRed Delicious Apple KingdomPlantae Division Anthrophyta Class Dicotyledonae Order Rosales Family Rosaceae Genus Malus (or Malus) Species domestica (or domestica) Variety (naturally occurring) (cultivar) ‘Red Delicious’ Form -- Individual --

  3. Botanical Names for Horticultural Crops • Mostly deals with family, genus, species, and cultivar • Binomial for botanical names • Italicize or underline genus and species • Genus species (or Genusspecies) • Do not underline or italicize family and cultivar names • Rosaceae (the rose family) • Malus domestica cv. Golden Delicious • Variety names may be underlined or italicized • Piceaglauca var. densata Black Hills Spruce • Picea pungens cv. Hoopsii Hoops Blue Spruce

  4. Blue Spruce • Natural botanical varieties are seed propagated • Cultivars are propagated asexually by cuttings or grafting Picea pungens cv.Hoopsii Picea pungens var. glauca

  5. Red Delicious or Golden Delicious Apples Malusdomestica cv. Red Delicious Malusdomestica cv. Red Delicious Malusdomestica ‘Red Delicious’ Malusdomestica ‘Red Delicious’ Malusdomestica cv. Golden Delicious Malusdomestica cv. Golden Delicious Malusdomestica ‘Golden Delicious’ Malusdomestica ‘Golden Delicious’ Golden Delicious was a sport of Red Delicious

  6. Selected Terminology • Variety – A group of variants within a species which have similar characteristics • Cultivar – Cultivated variety, usually human-made Cultigen – A cultivar that has naturalized in a native stand • Ecospecies – A subdivision of species that are formed by ecological barrier (i.e., Cercis canadendensis, Redbud) • Clone – A group of plants all of which arose from a single individual (ortet) through asexual (vegetative) propagation • Clonal Cultivar – An asexually propagated clone (i.e., Russet Burbank potato, Royalty rose, etc.) • Pure Lines – Homozygous inbred lines grown from seed AAbbcc, aabbcc, aaBBcc, aabbCC • Hybrid Cultivar – A cultivar developed by hybridizing (crossing) two or more genetically diverse parental lines Genetically heterozygous, phenotypically uniform (homogeneous) AaBbCc (A=dominat allele, a=recessive allele)

  7. Ecospecies of Redbud • Formed by ecological isolation • Clines with continuous variation in leaf pubescence from east to west Redbud

  8. Some Horticulturally Important Families • Rosaceae Rose Family • Solanaceae Nightshade Family • Cucurbitaceae Gourd Family • Brassicaceae Mustard Family • Apiaceae Celery Family • Liliaceae Lily Family • Orchidaceae Orchid Family

  9. Rosaceae (Rose Family) • About 100 genera, 3000 species • Rose, raspberry, blackberry, strawberry, prunus (peach, cherry, apricot, almond, plum), apple, pear, quince • Examples • Rosa hybrida cv. Royalty Royalty rose • Pyrus communis cv. Bartlett Bartlett Pear • Malus domestica cv. Fuji Fuji Apple • Fragaria ananasa Strawberry

  10. Examples of Rosaceae Crops Pear Rose Strawberry Apricot Apple

  11. Solanaceae (Nightshade Family) • About 90 genera, 2200 species • Mostly native to South America • Genus Solanum is the largest with 1700 species • Many species containalkaloids, solanine, nicotine, atropine • Examples • Solanum tuberosum Potato • Solanum tuberosum ‘Russet Burbank’ Russet Burbank potato • Petunia hybrida cv. Red Cascade Red Cascade petunia • Lycopersiconesculentum Tomato • Capsicum frutescens ‘Red Bell’ Red Bell pepper

  12. Some Solanaceae Crops Yukon Gold Potato Bell pepper Tomato Potato Eggplant

  13. Cucurbitaceae (Gourd Family) • About 100 genera, 559 species • Native to both the old and new worlds • Mostly vines with tendrils • Examples • Citrullus vulgaris Watermelon • Cucumis sativus Cucumber • Cucurbita pepo Pumpkin • Cucurbita maxima Squash • Cucumis melo Muskmelon

  14. Some Cucurbitaceae Crops Watermelon, seedless Watermelon, seedless Muskmelon Cucumber Watermelon Gourds Pumpkin

  15. Some Cucurbit Displaysat IHC06-Seoul

  16. Brassicaceae (Cruciferae, Mustard Family) • About 350 genera, 3200 species • Cole crops such as cabbage, broccoli, radish • Many are common garden crops • Typically 4-merous (cross-like flower petals) • Examples • Brassica oleracea Cabbage, kale, kohlrabi, broccoli, cauliflower • Brassica napa Pak Choi, Napa cabbage, turnip • Brassica juncea Mustard • Raphanum sativa Radish, Daikon radish

  17. Some Brassicaceae Vegetables

  18. ApiaceaeFormerly Umbeliferae, Celery or Parsnip Family • About 250 genera, 2500 species • Annual or biennial herb • Umbel shape inflorescence (compound umbels) • Examples • Daucus carota Carrot • Apium graceolens Celery • Coriandrum sativum Coriander • Petroselinum hortense Parsley

  19. Some Apiaceae Crops Coriander Purple carrot

  20. Liliaceae (Lily Family)Monocots • About 240 genera, 3000 species • Specialized foot storage organs such as rhizomes, bulbs, fleshy roots) • Include many ornamental plants • Examples • Asparagus officinalis Asparagus • Lilium longiglorum Easter lily • Aloe barbadensis Aloe vera • Allium cepa Onion • Tulipa spp. Tulips

  21. Some Liliaceae Plants Asparagus Garlic Easter lily Tulip Aloe vera Onion Trillium 3-merous

  22. Garlic Festival • Held inGilroy, CA, - Garlic capitol of the world (122,000 visitors in 2004) • 28th annual Gilroy garlic festival was held July 28-30, 2006

  23. Orchidaceae (Orchid Family)Monocots • About 800 genera, 30,000 species • Mostly native to tropical and subtropical regions • Epiphytic as well as terrestrial growth habits • Many species are used as ornamentals • Examples • Vanilla planifolia Vanilla orchid • Cattleya spp. Cattleya orchids • Dendrobium spp. Dendrobium orchids • Phalaenopsis spp. Phalaenopsis orchids • Cymbidium spp. Cymbidium orchids • Cypripedium reginae Lady slipper orchid

  24. Some Orchidaceae Plants Vanilla flower Phalaenopsis Cattleya Lady Slipper Cattleya hybrid Vanilla orchid

  25. Orchid popularity is increasing worldwide