Plant classification Use physical characteristics and uses to indentify nursery/landscape plants
Life Cycles • Annuals – Plant that goes through its entire life cycle in one growing season. • Biennials - Plant that goes through its entire life cycle two growing seasons. It usually grows the first year and blooms the second. • Perennials – a plant that lives morethan two years. Some perennials will grow and bloom the first year.
Growth Habits Trees – Plant that is more than 12 feet tall Shrubs – Plant that is less than 12 feet tall Vine – plant that has infinite size but grows horizontally on a trellis, fence, wall or the ground
Foliage retention • Evergreen • Deciduous
Leaf arrangements • Alternate – (Spiral) leaves are arranges in alternate steps along the stem, with only one leaf at each node. • Opposite – Are positioned across the stem from each other with two leaves at each node • Whorled – Arranged in circles along the stem • Rosulate– Arranges in a rosette around a stem with short nodes
Simple or Compound leaves • Simple leaves are those in which the leaf blade is a single continuous unit • A compound leaf is composed of several separate leaflets arising from the same petiole
Leaf Shapes • Linear: Narrow, several times longer than wide; approximately the same width. • Elliptical: 2 or 3 times longer than wide; tapering to an acute or rounded apex and base. • Ovate: Egg-shaped, basal portion wide; tapering toward the apex. • Lanceolate: Longer than wide; tapering toward the apex and base.
Cordate: Heart-shaped, broadly ovate; tapering to an acute apex, with the base turning in and forming a notch where the petiole is attached • Peltate leaves are rounded with the petiole attached underneath the base of the leaf • Spatulate leaves are narrow for almost the entire leaf, but then have an abrupt round structure at the apex.
Vein Patterns • Parallel-those in which there are numerous veins which run essentially parallel to each other and are connected laterally by minute, straight veinlets • Net-veined -veins which branch from the main midrib(s) and then subdivide into finer veinlets which then unite in a complicated network
Margins • Entire – Having a smooth edge with no teeth or notches • Undulate – Having large, round teeth • Crenate – Having small, rounded teeth
Dentate –Having teeth ending in an acute angle pointing outward • Serrate – Having small, sharp teeth pointing toward the apex • Incised – Having a margin cut into sharp, deep, irregular teeth or incisions • Lobed – having incisions that extend less than halfway to the midrib
Other ways to indentify • Leaf color • Leaf surface • Flower arrangement • Raceme • Spike • Corymb • Umbel • Cyme • Head • Panicle