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State Standard

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State Standard

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  1. Conserving Biodiversity (5.3) State Standard SB4D. Assess and explain human activities that influence and modify the environment such as global warming, population growth, pesticide use, and water and power consumption.

  2. What trend about resource use does the graph reveal?

  3. Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 Natural Resources • In today’s world there is a high demand for natural resources • The consumption rate of natural resources is not evenly distributed • Natural Resources are categorized as either renewable or nonrenewable.

  4. Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 Natural Resources • Nonrenewable resources are found on Earth in limited amounts or those that are replaced by natural processes over extremely long periods. • Examples: • Tin, silver, gold uranium, copper (limited amounts) • Phosphorous (recycled slowly) • Topsoil (forms slowly) • Fossil fuels (form slowly)

  5. Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 Renewable Resources • Renewable resources are replaced by natural processes faster than they are consumed. • Examples: • Plants • Crops • Animals • Water • Various types of energy • --wind • --water • --hydroelectric dams

  6. Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 Water & Power Consumption • Human population growth & economic development are driving a steadily increasing demand for water & power supplies. • While there is no shortage of water globally, much of it is inaccessible for human use and unevenly distributed. • More power is required to access water and treat it so that it can be used.

  7. Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 Water & Power Consumption • The negative environmental effects of burning fossil fuels calls for development of & use of environmentally friendly sustainable energy sources.

  8. Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 Natural Resources • Sustainableuse means using resources at a rate in which they can be replaced or recycled while preserving the long-term environmental health of the biosphere.

  9. Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 Threats to Biodiversity Pollution • Pollution and atmospheric changes threaten biodiversity and global stability. • Pollution is the contamination of soil, water, or air as a result of human activity. • Pollution has increased as countries have become more industrialized.

  10. Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 Threats to Biodiversity Air Pollution & Global Warming • The measured increase of CO2 in the atmosphere is largely due to burning of fossil fuels. • As CO2 levels have increased, the average global temperature has increased

  11. Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 Threats to Biodiversity Air Pollution – CO2 & Ozone • Excess CO2 can contribute to the Greenhouse Effect (where gases in the atmosphere trap radiant energy from the sun, causing the earth to stay warm) • Release of CFCs from making coolants & Styrofoam has thinned the Ozone layer, which protects the earth from ultraviolet radiation overdose

  12. Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 Threats to Biodiversity Air Pollution • Also includes dust, smoke, ash, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides. • Contains gases & particulates (harmful solids) • Smoke, gas, & fog combine to form smog.

  13. Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 Threats to Biodiversity Air Pollution - Acid Precipitation • Smog containing Sulfur and nitrogen compounds react with water and other substances in the air to form sulfuric acid and nitric acid. • Acid precipitation removes calcium, potassium, and other nutrients from the soil, depriving plants of these nutrients. • Also damages crops, aquatic ecosystems, and weathers buildings.

  14. Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 Threats to Biodiversity Pollution & Pesticides • Biological magnificationis the increasing concentration of toxic substances in organisms as trophic levels increase in a food chain or food web. Ex: DDT • Overuse of pesticides has also caused a rise in pesticide-resistant insect populations (natural selection)

  15. Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 Threats to Biodiversity Water Pollution • Caused by contaminants from sewers, industries, farms, & homes, which enter water sources such as lakes, rivers, groundwater, & oceans

  16. Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 Threats to Biodiversity Water Pollution - Eutrophication • Eutrophication occurs when substances rich in nitrogen and phosphorus (fertilizers) flow into waterways, causing extensive algae growth. • The algae use up the oxygen supply during their rapid growth and after their deaths during the decaying process. • Other organisms in the water suffocate.

  17. Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 Threats to Biodiversity EXTINCTION • The gradual process of species becoming extinct is known as backgroundextinction. • Massextinction is an event in which a large percentage of all living species become extinct in a relatively short period of time.

  18. Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 Threats to Biodiversity EXTINCTION FACTORS • The current high rate of extinction is due to the activities of a single species—Homo sapiens. • Humans are changing conditions on Earth fasterthan new traits can evolve to cope with the new conditions.

  19. Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 Threats to Biodiversity EXTINCTION FACTORS • Overexploitation, or excessive use, of species that have economic value is a factor increasing the current rate of extinction. • Bison • Passenger pigeons • Ocelot Rhinoceros • Rhinoceros Ocelot

  20. Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 Threats to Biodiversity EXTINCTION FACTORS - Habitat Loss • If a habitat is destroyed or disrupted, the native species might have to relocate or they will die. • The destruction of habitat, such as the clearing of tropical rain forests (deforestation), has a direct impact on global biodiversity.

  21. Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 Threats to Biodiversity EXTINCTION FACTORS - Habitat Loss • The declining population of one species can affect an entire ecosystem.

  22. Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 Threats to Biodiversity FRAGMENTATION OF HABITAT • The separation of an ecosystem into small pieces of land is called habitat fragmentation. • The smaller the parcel of land, the fewer species it can support. • Fragmentation reduces the opportunities for individuals in one area to reproduce with individuals from another area. • Carving the large ecosystem into small parcels increases the number of edges—creating edge effects.

  23. Nonnative species that are either intentionally or unintentionally transported to a new habitat are known as introduced species. Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 Threats to Biodiversity INTRODUCED SPECIES • Introduced species often reproduce in large numbers because of a lack of predators, and become invasive species in their new habitat.

  24. Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 Conserving Biodiversity Biodiversity Hot Spots • Currently, about seven percent of the world’s land is set aside as some type of reserve – especially where there are endemic species and a large portion of the habitat has been lost.

  25. Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 Conserving Biodiversity Corridors Between Habitat Fragments • Improve the survival of biodiversity by providing corridors, or passageways, between habitat fragments • Creates a larger piece of land that can sustain a wider variety of species and a wider variety of genetic variation

  26. bioremediation • The use of living organisms, such as prokaryotes, fungi, orplants, to detoxify a polluted area is called Biodiversity and Conservation . Chapter 5 Conserving Biodiversity Bioremediation EX: Bacteria cleaning up oil spills

  27. Biodiversity and Conservation Chapter 5 Conserving Biodiversity Biological Augmentation • Adding natural predators to a degraded ecosystem is called biological augmentation. Ladybugs help control aphid populations. Photo courtesy of Nature’s Control