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Standard. Analyze the development of the two-party system during the presidency of George Washington, including controversies over domestic and foreign policies and the regional interests of the Democratic-Republicans and the Federalists. Essential Question.

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  1. Standard • Analyze the development of the two-party system during the presidency of George Washington, including controversies over domestic and foreign policies and the regional interests of the Democratic-Republicans and the Federalists.

  2. Essential Question • What precedents were established during George Washington’s presidency?

  3. America’s First President • George Washington set many precedents while in office 1789-1797

  4. Why is the French Revolution Important? • France expected US help during the French Revolution (1789-97) • Why? • 1793 – President Washington issued Proclamation of Neutrality – We stayed out of the Fr. Rev.

  5. How did we expand our markets? • Pinckney Treaty (Treaty of San Lorenzo)- 1795 • Spain allows America access to New Orleans. • Western goods can be transported.

  6. How did we settle NW Territory? • US defeats the Miami Confederacy at the Battle of Fallen Timbers, Ohio • Treaty of Greenville – Miami agreed to give up land in Ohio for very little money.

  7. How did we reopen business with Britain? • Jay’s Treaty-1794 • British agreed to evacuate forts in NW territory. • US gave Britain favorable trade status • Many anti-federalists opposed this. • Favored better relations with France

  8. What role does the Cabinet play? • Washington named a cabinet of advisors • Jefferson was named Secretary of State • Hamilton was appointed Secretary of the Treasury • Knox became Secretary of War • Randolph was named Attorney General

  9. What did the Judiciary Act of 1789 do? • Created 13 Federal District Courts • Created 3 Circuit Courts of Appeal • Supreme Court would have 1 Chief Justice and 5 Associate Justices • Allowed state court decisions to be appealed to federal court.

  10. What was Hamilton’s Economic Plan? • Federal assumption of the state debt. • Creation of a Bank of the United States • Protective tariffs to encourage American industries • Excise taxes to raise money (excise tax on whiskey)

  11. Why did DC become the capital? • Many southern states objected Federal payment of state debt • Why? • In a compromise, the new capital city was moved to the South between MD and VA • This is the District of Colombia

  12. How did Washington end the Whiskey Rebellion? • Farmers in western Pa refused to pay the tax on Whiskey. Violence erupted. • Where did they learn this? • Washington used the military to crush resistance. • This set an strong example of Federal Gov’t Power. • What other rebellion was not stopped by a central gov’t?

  13. Hamilton Strong central gov’t Gov’t by “the rich, the well-born, and the able” Jefferson Strong state gov’t “The Common Man” How did Federalists and Antifederalist differ on government power?

  14. Hamilton Support BUS Use the elastic clause to stretch money related powers “loose interpretation” Jefferson Opposed BUS Feared it gave too much power to Federal Gov’t Not in Constitution “Strict interpretation” Bank of the United States

  15. Hamilton Support tax Raise money to pay debt Jefferson Opposed tax Would hurt common farmers’ incomes Excise Tax on Whiskey

  16. Hamilton Industry Jefferson Agriculture Basis of the Economy

  17. Hamilton Supported would protect American industries from foreign competition Jefferson Opposed – would raise prices and wouldn’t benefit common man Protective Tariff

  18. Hamilton Support British – value of trade Jefferson Support French – we inspired ideas of democracy Response to the French Revolution

  19. Washington’s Foreign Policy • Washington’s Farewell Address warned the country of 2 concerns • Avoid political parties – they tend to divide the country • Avoid “entangling” alliances – short term, temporary alliances are better for the country

  20. The 2-term Presidency • Washington set the precedent of serving only 2 terms and then retiring

  21. Who were the 1st two Political Parties? • Democratic-Republicans (D-Rs) • Led by Thomas Jefferson • Characteristics • Pro agriculture • Pro revolutionary France • Pro “common” man • Pro States rights (vs. strong central government) • Strict interpretation of Constitution

  22. Election of 1796 • Results • John Adams (F) – 71 EV • Thomas Jefferson (D-R) – 68 EV • Thomas Pinckney (F) – 59 EV • Aaron Burr (D-R) – 30 EV President = John Adams (F) VP = Thomas Jefferson (D-R)

  23. How were VP’s chosen? • Constitution • President to be person with most EVs • VP to be person with second most EVs • Became big problem in Adams’ Admin. • Why? VP Jefferson Pres. Adams

  24. Why were the French angry w/ US? • Continued neutrality • French Revolution • Problem: French were attacking US ships • Why? • Adams sent diplomats France French (in distance) bearing down on damaged American ship

  25. How did the French insult US? • French demanded a bribe, $12 million loan, and public apology, just for a meeting w/ French • Americans went home, instead Americans (at left) facing French revolutionary demands, in US newspaper cartoon

  26. How did XYZ divide US? • Jefferson was doubtful of the story • Why? • French agents’ names to X, Y and Z • Many wanted US to declare war w/ France Token handed out during XYZ Affair

  27. How did Adams react? • Quasi-War: No declaration, but French, American ships attacked each other • 1800: Adams renegotiated treatythat ended conflict. USS Constellation – active during Quasi War

  28. Alien & Sedition Acts, 1798 • president could deport any alien considered "dangerous to the US • Aimed at French sympathizers • Sedition • made it a crime to publish criticisms of US gov’t Fight in Congress during debate over Sedition Act, 1798

  29. What was the reaction to XYZ? “Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the Press . . .” • Jefferson: Unconstitutional!! • First Amendment • Tenth Amendment • KY and VA Resolutions • Called on states to nullify laws “The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.”

  30. Led to end of Federalist Party • Federalists lost many elections The power of the press . . .

  31. Why is 1800 election important? • One of the nastiest elections ever (slander, personal attacks • Jefferson, Burr tie; election goes to Federalist House • Hamilton convinced many to choose Jefferson • Led to Duel w/ Burr Jefferson (D-R)73 Burr (D-R)73 J. Adams (F)65 Pinckney (F)64

  32. 12th Amendment • Ended 2nd Place as VP • They run as a Ticket Boston Sentinel, 1801

  33. Adams appoints a large number of judges at the end of his presidency-Midnight Judges • All approved, but paperwork is not turned in before Jefferson takes office • What would you do?

  34. Why is Marbury v. Madison Important • Marbury sued Madison over a court appointment not recognized by Jefferson • Court rules in favor of Madison • This court case establishes • Judicial Review- Power to rule acts of Legislative and/or Executive Branch Unconstitutional

  35. Who was John Marshall? • Chief Justice from 1801-1836 • Strong Federalist

  36. How did Jefferson expand executive power? • LA Purchase 1803: Doubled the size of the US • Purchased for ~$15 million (only 3 cents per acre!) • Lewis and Clark were sent to explore and document

  37. Barbary Wars • US ships were being targeted by pirates off the North African coast. • TJ refused to pay tribute • Sent military into Tripoli instead

  38. How did the Napoleonic Wars affect the US? • US was officially neutral • However, US increases trade w/ France • British extremely upset • Violates Jay’s Treaty • Helping Britain’s greatest enemy

  39. Britain starts impressment—kidnapping US soldiers and forcing them into the British Navy

  40. Federalists felt… • It was a cost of doing business • Trade w/ Britain too important D-R’s felt… • Insulted& Angry

  41. 1807, Chesapeake Affair • British kill 3 Americans then seize 4 sailors from the USS Chesapeake after stopping it. • What should Jefferson do?

  42. Jefferson chooses Economic Diplomacy • Embargo Act of 1807 • We cease ANY business w/ Britain & France • Result: Hurts the US more than France or Britain

  43. Embargo is wildly unpopular • Where? • Congress repeals the Embargo Act in 1809 • Non-Intercourse Act- US resumes trade with world. • Jefferson happily didn’t run in 1808 • James Madison became the next president

  44. Terms • Democratic-Republicans • Protective Tariff • Excise Tax • Edmond Genet • Little Turtle • Sectionalism • Nullification

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