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Cancer Treatments and Prevention

Advanced research on the causes, treatments, and prevention of cancer. This video shows how to use research tools to get advancements in diagnostics, treatment and nutrition (nutraceuticals) in order to optimize your fight against cancer.

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Cancer Treatments and Prevention

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  1. Understanding Cancer: Current Scientific Research on Causes, Treatments, and Prevention www.ctoam.com

  2. Our mission is to educate you and provide you with the most current research on the prevention and treatment of cancer so that you can make the most informed choice possible and ensure that you are doing all you can to have a life that is cancer free. www.ctoam.com

  3. This presentation will cover key aspects of cancer development and treatment based on current scientific knowledge. www.ctoam.com

  4. It is our gift to you because we know that the more education and understanding you have, the better able you will be to make sure you are receiving the most effective treatment possible. www.ctoam.com

  5. A Little About Us CTOAM provides personalized research and support for all aspects of cancer treatment. www.ctoam.com

  6. A Little About Us We explore the underlying genetics involved in your cancer and incorporate cutting edge, scientifically proven, treatment options with a personalized, genetically based, nutritional approach. www.ctoam.com

  7. A Little About Us The combination of personalized research, cutting edge proven treatments, and nutraceutical treatment provides our patients with the greatest chance for complete recovery. www.ctoam.com

  8. A Little About Us This presentation will help you to understand why personalized cancer research and nutraceuticals are fundamental to your treatment, recovery, and longevity, and how you can most simply and effectively implement this information. www.ctoam.com

  9. A Little About Us At CTOAM we use only the most current, peer reviewed scientific data to conduct personalized cancer research for you. This means that you can trust that the material in this presentation and in our Personalized Options Reports is based on solid science (with references supplied). www.ctoam.com

  10. Feel Free to Share We know you’ll learn a lot from this presentation and we welcome hearing your questions and thoughts. Please feel free to share it with your friends, family, support groups and medical support team. Alex Rolland, CEO www.ctoam.com

  11. In This Presentation We’ll Cover: • How cancer develops and the role of genes and stem cells in its development. • Current treatments, their effectiveness and limitations. www.ctoam.com

  12. In This Presentation We’ll Cover: • Diagnostic and imaging options that have been proven to enhance treatment effectiveness. • The benefits and misconceptions of clinical trials. www.ctoam.com

  13. In This Presentation We’ll Cover: The importance of using nutraceuticals as part of your cancer treatment and prevention protocol. www.ctoam.com

  14. This presentation consists of two key sections: 1. Cancer 101 (Understanding current issues in cancer) & 2. Ensuring That You Are Making Informed Choices www.ctoam.com

  15. Cancer 101 It is now widely accepted that all cancers are caused by adult stem cells (or cells with stem-cell like properties). www.ctoam.com

  16. What is an adult stem cell? • Adult stem cells occur in roughly 1 out of 6 million body cells. • These cells are used to repair and replace body cells. www.ctoam.com

  17. Cancer 101 Adult stem cells are different from embryonic stem cells in a few ways: Adult stem cells are contained in regions referred to as stem cell niches, where they remain in a dormant state (quiescence) until activated. Each type of tissue contains it’s own stem cell niche. www.ctoam.com

  18. Cancer 101 Adult stem cells are different from embryonic stem cells in a few ways: Unlike embryonic stem cells, adult stem cells are restricted to producing cells of a specific tissue type. www.ctoam.com

  19. What is an adult stem cell? • All stem cells have unique features that allow them to avoid destruction during treatment. • However, it is their ability to exist in a dormant state (quiescence) until activated, that is currently inhibiting standard treatments. www.ctoam.com

  20. The 2 stages of stem cell activation There are two key stages of stem cell activation: • Proliferation & • Differentiation. www.ctoam.com

  21. The 2 stages of stem cell activation In The Proliferation Stage: The stem cell makes multiple copies of itself. In The Differentiation Stage: The multiple copies are converted into the required cell type and given a Hayflick number. www.ctoam.com

  22. The 2 stages of stem cell activation • The Hayflick number is the number of times a normal cell will divide before it stops and dies. • The important point here is that once a cell has differentiated, it has a finite lifespan. www.ctoam.com

  23. Stem cell life cycle Stem cell (dormant) Progenitor cell (proliferation) Mature cell (differentiation) (Activation) Self renewal www.ctoam.com

  24. Stem cell life cycle • There are two imports points here: • A stem cell makes an exact copy of itself, which remains dormant in the stem cell niche. • A stem cell also produces a large amount of progenitor cells, which then differentiate into the required type of cells. www.ctoam.com

  25. Stem cells and cancer The problem with stem cells is that sometimes, due to mutations, a stem cell is not provided with the cues for differentiation and it gets stuck in a never ending cycle of proliferation, making many copies of itself. This is what we call cancer. www.ctoam.com

  26. Genes and cancer Knowing what genes are involved in your cancer is fundamental to effective treatment because it is your genes that directly control the proliferation and differentiation of your stem cells. www.ctoam.com

  27. Genes and cancer Mutations in the genes that control stem cell activation, proliferation and differentiation are responsible for your cancer. www.ctoam.com

  28. Genes and cancer There are two key types of genes involved in cancer: 1. Oncogenes. & 2. Tumor suppressors. www.ctoam.com

  29. Genes and cancer Oncogenes (tumor causing genes): • Cause proliferation. 2. Are turned on (expressed) or over-expressed in cancers. 3. Are mutated in such a way that causes them to stay on. www.ctoam.com

  30. Genes and cancer Tumor suppressors (cancer preventing genes): • Initiate differentiation. • Are inhibited or under-expressed in cancers. • There are common mutations and deletions of tumor suppressors that occur in specific forms of cancer. www.ctoam.com

  31. Genes and cancer The following image shows the healthy development of a stem cell into a mature, differentiated cell that has a finite life span. This is the way things are supposed to go. (Notice the location of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes – in red). www.ctoam.com

  32. Normal stem cell life cycle Stem cell (dormant) Progenitor cell (proliferation) Mature cell (differentiation) (Activation) (Oncogenes) (Tumor supressor genes) Self renewal www.ctoam.com

  33. Stem cells and cancer Recall that when a stem cell is not provided with the cues for differentiation, it gets stuck in a never ending cycle of proliferation, making many copies of itself and causing cancer. The following slide shows what happens when this is the case. www.ctoam.com

  34. Cancer stem cell life cycle Stem cell (dormant) Progenitor cell (proliferation) Mature cell (differentiation) (Activation) (Oncogenes) (Tumor suppressor genes) Self renewal Tumor cells www.ctoam.com

  35. Stem cells and cancer You will notice in the previous image, that the tumor suppressor genes (which we need to prevent oncogenes from flourishing) are either non-existent or diminished or mutated to the point of ineffectiveness, thus giving the oncogenes free reign to trigger stem cells to proliferate and cause cancer. www.ctoam.com

  36. Why is this important? There are hundreds of documented oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in your body. Only four of these genes need to be altered or mutated for cancer to develop. www.ctoam.com

  37. Why is this important? Therefore, there are many 1000’s of possible combinations of gene alterations that can lead to cancer in each individual case. It is not the same for every person. This is why success rates for treatment can vary so greatly from one person to another. www.ctoam.com

  38. Why is this important? It is also why a one size fits all approach to cancer treatment does not work. You need to be engaged in a comprehensive treatment program that is going to attend to the specific genes and mutations involved in the development of your cancer so that you resolve the underlying cause of your cancer and not just treat the symptoms of tumors and proliferating cancer cells. www.ctoam.com

  39. Why is this important? Standard medical treatments typically attempt to remove tumors or reduce the number of cancer cells in your body but are often unable to eradicate cancers at the level of oncogenes. Nor are they able to enhance or repair the function of your tumor suppressor genes. This is why so many cancers return. www.ctoam.com

  40. Why is this important? Ensuring that you are engaging in treatments that, as much as possible, target the genes specific to the development of your cancer, is key to reducing the side effects of treatment and enhancing life expectancy and cure rates. This is our mission and area of expertise. www.ctoam.com

  41. Development of cancer Now let’s explore how cancer develops once the unregulated proliferation of stem cells has begun. www.ctoam.com

  42. Development of cancer It is widely assumed that the originator stem cells that produce the bulk of a tumor are also responsible for metastasis. When a cancer cell is stuck in proliferation and hasn’t differentiated, it can live almost anywhere in the body (metastasize). www.ctoam.com

  43. Metastasis But, how is it that cancer cells travel throughout the body? One way is through the blood vessels. www.ctoam.com

  44. Angiogenesis and metastasis Cancer cells are constantly growing and therefore, need to consume a lot of resources. In other words, they require their own blood supply. Angiogenesis is a process that cancers use to recruit their own blood vessels in order to enable their continued growth. www.ctoam.com

  45. Angiogenesis and metastasis The process of angiogenesis is controlled by oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Oncogenes are responsible for the development of angiogenesis while tumor suppressor genes inhibit it. www.ctoam.com

  46. Summary Let’s review what we’ve covered so far about the development of cancer and then move on to an exploration of standard and enhanced treatment options. www.ctoam.com

  47. Summary • Stem cells remain dormant until activated. • Cancer is a disease of the stem cells caused by reduced differentiation and increased proliferation. www.ctoam.com

  48. Summary Proliferation, differentiation, and angiogenesis are all controlled by genes. The recruitment of blood vessels (angiogenesis) allows the tumor to grow and to metastasize. www.ctoam.com

  49. Standard treatment methods Now let’s explore standard treatments to cancer, their pros and cons, and how you can enhance standard treatment and explore scientifically based adjunct therapies to increase your survival potential, reduce the likelihood of relapse and decrease any treatment side effects. www.ctoam.com

  50. The standardized approach to cancer treatment utilizes the following three techniques: Surgery: Removes diseased tissues. 2. Radiation: Creates DNA mutations in rapidly dividing cells. 3. Chemotherapy: Chemical interference of rapidly dividing cells. Standard treatment methods www.ctoam.com

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