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HERITAGE AND SUSTAINABILITY IN THE EU

HERITAGE AND SUSTAINABILITY IN THE EU

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HERITAGE AND SUSTAINABILITY IN THE EU

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  1. HERITAGE AND SUSTAINABILITY IN THE EU Architect Sara Van Rompaey Order of Architects Belgium UIA HeritageWorkProgramme, Region I sara.vanrompaey@skynet.be Van Nellefabriek, Rotterdam 1929

  2. HERITAGE AND SUSTAINABILITY IN THE EU AGENDA • ENERGY EFFICIENCY: STATE-OF-THE-ART • SUSTAINABILITY OF BUILDINGS WITH HERITAGE VALUE • ACTIONS & STRATEGIES • CURRENT POSSIBILITIES OF ENERGY UPGRADING   • INNOVATION AND RESEARCH

  3. AGENDA • ENERGY EFFICIENCY: STATE-OF-THE-ART • SUSTAINABILITY OF BUILDINGS WITH HERITAGE VALUE • ACTIONS & STRATEGIES • CURRENT POSSIBILITIES OF ENERGY UPGRADING • INNOVATION AND RESEARCH

  4. 1. ENERGY EFFICIENCY: STATE-OF-THE-ART • Legislation and Directives • “Why architects and heritage specialists need to be involved?” Middelburg (Nl.), 2009

  5. Legislation and Directives • Kyoto (1997 – 2005) / Copenhagen (2009) / Cancun (2010) • EU targets of reducing greenhouse gas emissions to be met by 2020: • 20% compared to 1990 levels • 20% increase in energy efficiency • 20% share of renewable energy in overall EU energy consumption • EPDB Directive 2002 • Recast EPDB 2010: • Protected heritage • Historic buildings 1. ENERGY EFFICIENCY: STATE-OF-THE-ART

  6. Legislation and Directives EPDB Directive 2002 • minimum requirements for new buildings and for major rehabilitation / refurbishment of buildings • requirements for energy production and distribution • introducing energy certification Officially protected buildings: National exeptions Villa Noailles, Hyères (Fr.) 1925 1. ENERGY EFFICIENCY: STATE-OF-THE-ART

  7. Legislation and Directives Recast EPDB 2010: • minimum energy performance requirements also for the renovated building elements • System requirements, intelligent metering, active control systems, regular inspection • EPC when a building is constructed, sold or rented School Bottelare (B), 1907 1. ENERGY EFFICIENCY: STATE-OF-THE-ART

  8. Legislation and Directives Recast EPDB 2010: Member States of the EU now in the process of implementing Exceptions: Protectedheritage and historic buildings • “in so far as minimum energy performance requirements would unacceptably alter their character or appearance” • “buildings used as places of worship and for religious activities”. Level of the requirements is set by the individual Member States: “Try to get involved!” (Belgium: exceptions for street facade of historic non-protected buildings) 1. ENERGY EFFICIENCY: STATE-OF-THE-ART

  9. “Why architects and heritage specialists need to be involved?” • Historic buildings (pre 1945) form the core and the image of many European cities • 10% of building stock • Urgent need for refurbishment and renovation to bring these buildings to EU energy efficiency standards • Respect for the main features and cultural value of historic buildings Tavira (P), 2011 1. ENERGY EFFICIENCY: STATE-OF-THE-ART

  10. “Why architects and heritage specialists need to be involved?” • Challenge: • Wall insulation • Window improvement • Solution? No Sofia (Bg), 2010 1. ENERGY EFFICIENCY: STATE-OF-THE-ART

  11. “Why architects and heritage specialists need to be involved?” • Challenge: • Insulation • Window improvement • Solution? No, irreversible damage Marseille (Fr), 2012 1. ENERGY EFFICIENCY: STATE-OF-THE-ART

  12. “Why architects and heritage specialists need to be involved?” • Challenge: • 18th century stucco ceiling • Solution? No 1. ENERGY EFFICIENCY: STATE-OF-THE-ART

  13. “Why architects and heritage specialists need to be involved?” • Challenge: • Door 1760 • 1960 Central heating • Air transport eliminated • Solution? No 1. ENERGY EFFICIENCY: STATE-OF-THE-ART

  14. “Why architects and heritage specialists need to be involved?” Before irreversible damage is done, concerted actions, based on sound science, are needed to protect, strengthen and adapt Europe’s unique cultural patrimony Budapest, 2011 1. ENERGY EFFICIENCY: STATE-OF-THE-ART

  15. AGENDA • ENERGY EFFICIENCY: STATE-OF-THE-ART • SUSTAINABILITY OF BUILDINGS WITH HERITAGE VALUE • ACTIONS & STRATEGIES • CURRENT POSSIBILITIES OF ENERGY UPGRADING • INNOVATION AND RESEARCH

  16. 2. SUSTAINABILITY OF BUILDINGS WITH HERITAGE VALUE “The most sustainable building is the one which is already built.” • Sustainable materials • Sustainable energy use • Waste management

  17. Sustainable materials: long life, original, renewable Parsonage Lemberge (B), 2009 Parsonage Lemberge (B), 1900 2. SUSTAINABILITY OF BUILDINGS WITH HERITAGE VALUE

  18. Sustainable energy use: construction concept, local, renewable energy sources Water mill, Argoules (Fr.), 2010 2. SUSTAINABILITY OF BUILDINGS WITH HERITAGE VALUE

  19. Waste management: recuperation of materials 2. SUSTAINABILITY OF BUILDINGS WITH HERITAGE VALUE

  20. AGENDA • ENERGY EFFICIENCY: STATE-OF-THE-ART • SUSTAINABILITY OF BUILDINGS WITH HERITAGE VALUE • ACTIONS & STRATEGIES • CURRENT POSSIBILITIES OF ENERGY UPGRADING • INNOVATION AND RESEARCH

  21. 3. ACTIONS & STRATEGIES “We need a methodology”: CASE STUDY 1 • Value assessment • Strategies: Readability old / new Minimum interventions Reversible interventions

  22. Value assessment We need a methodology How to find a necessary balance between conservation and evolution? • The Netherlands: DU-MO-calculation model • Hungary:methodology "Value-based development program analysis" by Mr Ernő Kálmán, President Association of Hungarian Architects • EUROPE: CEN EPBD Standard methodology will be further harmonised 3. ACTIONS & STRATEGIES

  23. Value assessment The Netherlands: DU-MO-calculation model DU-MO profile has 2 parts: DU= sustainability index (=DUurzaamheid) MO= MOnument coefficient The MO-coefficient is first of all defined by heritage specialists; only then the DU-index and the level of energy upgrade is decided Case study 1: VAN NELLE fabriek in Rotterdam (Nl) (=Protected topmonument) Case study 2: MANOR house Geraardsbergen (B) (= not protected heritage) 3. ACTIONS & STRATEGIES

  24. Value assessment Case study 1: VAN NELLEFABRIEK in Rotterdam (Nl) (=Protected topmonument) high MO, lower DU Van Nellefabriek (coffee, tea and tobacco from the colonies) dating from 1925-1931, restoration by architect Wessel De Jonge 3. ACTIONS & STRATEGIES

  25. Value assessment Case study 2: MANOR HOUSE Geraardsbergen (B) (= not protected heritage) lower MO, higher DU More energy upgrading measures are possible 19th century manor house of the Director of a textile factory. 3. ACTIONS & STRATEGIES

  26. Value assessment Case study 1: VAN NELLEFABRIEK high Mo-coefficient and a lower DU-index: the historical, esthetic and heritage value is very high. The monument can hardly be touched and may have lower energy performances. 3. ACTIONS & STRATEGIES

  27. Strategies Readability old / new Sustainable office building in a monument: box-in-a-box principle Smart alternatives were found to create an acceptable inner climate without touching the heritage values . 3. ACTIONS & STRATEGIES

  28. Strategies Minimum interventions Window frames in steel and single glazing cannot be removed or touched. 3. ACTIONS & STRATEGIES

  29. Strategies Reversible interventions Interior windows in between the concrete columns: reversible and can be taken away without damage to the columns, floors or ceilings. Distance of 1 m with an intermediate climate which blocks the cold. 3. ACTIONS & STRATEGIES

  30. AGENDA • ENERGY EFFICIENCY: STATE-OF-THE-ART • SUSTAINABILITY OF BUILDINGS WITH HERITAGE VALUE • ACTIONS & STRATEGIES • CURRENT POSSIBILITIES OF ENERGY UPGRADING • INNOVATION AND RESEARCH

  31. 4. CURRENT POSSIBLITIES OF ENERGY UPGRADING “We need new solutions”: CASE STUDY 2 • Insulation • Energy supply: heating and hot water • Ventilation

  32. INSULATION: WALLS External insulation We need new solutions: CASE STUDY 2 • Challenge: • Keep esthetic value • Insulate • Cost effectiveness • Solution: no • Energy efficient coatings and mortars? 4. CURRENT POSSIBILITIES OF ENERGY UPGRADING

  33. INSULATION: WALLS External insulation We need new solutions: CASE STUDY 2 • Challenge: • Keep esthetic value: bricks • Insulate • Cost effectiveness • Solution: no • Lime painting • Radiation selective coating? 4. CURRENT POSSIBILITIES OF ENERGY UPGRADING

  34. INSULATION: WALLS Internal insulation We need new solutions: CASE STUDY 2 • Challenge: • Internal condensation • Change damp-openess 4. CURRENT POSSIBILITIES OF ENERGY UPGRADING

  35. INSULATION: WALLS Internal insulation We need new solutions: CASE STUDY 2 • Solution: • No: facades • Yes: attic 4. CURRENT POSSIBILITIES OF ENERGY UPGRADING

  36. INSULATION: ROOF We need new solutions: CASE STUDY 2 • Challenge: • Keep valuable wooden beams • Insulate 4. CURRENT POSSIBILITIES OF ENERGY UPGRADING

  37. INSULATION: ROOF We need new solutions: CASE STUDY 2 • Solution: yes 4. CURRENT POSSIBILITIES OF ENERGY UPGRADING

  38. INSULATION: FLAT ROOFS We need new solutions: CASE STUDY 2 • Challenge: • Insulate • Solution: yes 4. CURRENT POSSIBILITIES OF ENERGY UPGRADING

  39. INSULATION: WINDOWS Window improvement We need new solutions: CASE STUDY 2 • Challenge: • Keep valuable wooden frame and single glazing • Insulate • Cost effectiveness 4. CURRENT POSSIBILITIES OF ENERGY UPGRADING

  40. INSULATION: WINDOWS Window improvement We need new solutions: CASE STUDY 2 • Possible solutions: • New interior window • Insulating film • Reflective curtains, shutters, blinds 4. CURRENT POSSIBILITIES OF ENERGY UPGRADING

  41. INSULATION: WINDOWS Window improvement: glass We need new solutions: CASE STUDY 2 • Challenge: • Keep valuable wooden frames • Single glazing • Insulate • Cost effectiveness 4. CURRENT POSSIBILITIES OF ENERGY UPGRADING

  42. INSULATION: WINDOWS Window improvement: glass We need new solutions: CASE STUDY 2 • Solutions: • New double glazing 1.3 4. CURRENT POSSIBILITIES OF ENERGY UPGRADING

  43. INSULATION: WINDOWS Window improvement: glass We need new solutions: CASE STUDY 2 • Other solutions: - High insulation single glass (Van Ruysdael) 4. CURRENT POSSIBILITIES OF ENERGY UPGRADING

  44. INSULATION: WINDOWS Window replacement We need new solutions: CASE STUDY 2 • Challenge: • Rotten wooden frames • Single glazing • Cost effectiveness • Ventilation • Solution: yes 4. CURRENT POSSIBILITIES OF ENERGY UPGRADING

  45. INSULATION: FLOORS We need new solutions: CASE STUDY 2 • Challenge: • Keep plaster decoration • Preserve valuable terrazo floors & old doors • Thermic & acoustic isolation 4. CURRENT POSSIBILITIES OF ENERGY UPGRADING

  46. INSULATION: FLOORS We need new solutions: CASE STUDY 2 • Solutions: partially 4. CURRENT POSSIBILITIES OF ENERGY UPGRADING

  47. ENERGY SUPPLY: HEATING AND HOT WATER We need new solutions: CASE STUDY 2 • Challenge: • No central heating • Solution: yes • Central heating low temperature, condensation • Reversible installation • Other solutions: Alternative energy: solar, wind? 4. CURRENT POSSIBILITIES OF ENERGY UPGRADING

  48. VENTILATION We need new solutions: CASE STUDY 2 • Challenge: • Preserve valuable details • Solution: yes • Ventilation in new windows • Mechanical ventilations bathrooms 4. CURRENT POSSIBILITIES OF ENERGY UPGRADING

  49. AGENDA • ENERGY EFFICIENCY: STATE-OF-THE-ART • SUSTAINABILITY OF BUILDINGS WITH HERITAGE VALUE • ACTIONS & STRATEGIES • CURRENT POSSIBILITIES OF ENERGY UPGRADING • INNOVATION AND RESEARCH

  50. 5. INNOVATION AND RESEARCH Renovation of the existing building stock and energy efficiency improvement of historic buildings = priority in the European research agenda • 3ENCULT • JPI • LINKS (URBACT) • Renovate Europe • CEN TC/346