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  1. TOURISM FOR NATURE & DEVELOPMENT This presentation has been prepared as part of the publication “Tourism for Nature & Development: A Good Practice Guide”. The CBD endorses the use and modification of these presentation materials for non-commercial purposes. If modifying the presentation materials, photograph credits should be maintained.

  2. OVERVIEW  INTRODUCTION • Tourism, biodiversity and poverty alleviation • Ecosystem goods & services • Environmental impacts of tourism • Tourism, development and poverty alleviation • Some current trends in tourism GOOD PRACTICES • Policy and strategy tools • Legal and normative tools • Measuring, reporting, auditing, monitoring and evaluation • Economic, financial and market-based instruments • Capacity building • Promotion, marketing and communication RESOURCES • References

  3. Tourism, biodiversity & poverty alleviation i • Biodiversity is a vital asset to the tourism industry. • A clean environment is each tourist’s expectation, and many tourists will not return to polluted or degraded destinations. • Developing counties are receiving an increasing share of a growing international tourism market. • Developing counties control the largest proportion of global biodiversity, and many tourism attractions in developing counties are closely linked to biodiversity. INTRODUCTION

  4. INTRODUCTION i Tourism, biodiversity and poverty alleviation • Developing countries are receiving an increasing share of a growing international tourism market. The market share of developing countries has grown to 40% of worldwide international arrivals – up from 34% in 2000. International Tourism Income (in billion US$)

  5. Ecosystem goods and services i The tourism industry is dependent on the healthy production of a wide variety of ecosystem services. • Tourist activities in coastal areas often focus on diverse marine resources such as coral reefs, whales, and birdlife, and require clean water for activities such as swimming and scuba diving. • National parks are often located in forested and mountainous areas and rely on the services of ecosystems to provide visitors with recreational, educational, and cultural experiences. INTRODUCTION

  6. INTRODUCTION i Ecosystem goods and services • The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment reports that the demand for recreational use of landscapes is growing; areas are being increasingly managed for tourism. • Tourism/recreation services were measured to be in good condition, though there are concerns that tourist activities may reduce the capacity of ecosystems to continue to provide these services. MEA (2005)

  7. Environmental impacts of tourism i • Tourism can have a variety of negative impacts on biodiversity, particularly when carried out without management standards designed to protect natural assets. • Infrastructure / facilities:Tourism development usually requires some form of infrastructure, which can result in significant alteration or destruction of natural habitats. • Resource depletion:Tourism development may concentrate local resource use in smaller areas and / or undermine local resource management systems. • Water pollution:New infrastructure developments often lead to increased sewerage pollution. This can have severe negative impacts on coastal biodiversity, particularly in areas with coral reefs. INTRODUCTION

  8. Environmental impacts of tourism i • Tourism activities: The activities of tourists and operators can lead to negative impacts on local environments. Coral reefs can be damaged by careless divers, boats, or by entrepreneurs who sell pieces of coral as souvenirs. • Waste:Tourism produces 35 million tonnes of solid waste yearly, roughly equivalent to that of the country of France. • Climate change:Carbon dioxide emissions from the tourism sector’s transport, accommodation and other activities are estimated to account for 4 to 6% of total global emissions, approximately equivalent to the total emissions of Canada, Brazil and South Korea combined. INTRODUCTION

  9. Positive impacts of tourism i • Sustainable tourism can also result in positive impacts for biodiversity conservation, while also delivering social and economic benefits to host communities. • Revenue raising for local communities:Tourism is an opportunity for business development and job creation. • Education and awareness raising:Tourism can help promote conservation by raising awareness amongst visitors through well-designed interpretation programmes. • Economic incentives for habitat protection:Tourism can bring economic value to natural and cultural resources. • Sustainable land management:Tourism can be a force for more sustainable land management by providing additional or alternative forms of livelihood. INTRODUCTION

  10. Tourism, development & poverty alleviation i • Tourism generates jobs and business opportunities for the host population, and can help reduce or eliminate poverty. • In 2004, total tourist arrivals to the 49 Small Island Developing Nations was estimated at just over 27 million people, compared to approximately 11 million people in 1988. This translates into a cumulative increase of 145 percent over the 16-year period or 9 per cent per annum. • UNWTO ST-EP (Sustainable Tourism—Eliminating Poverty) is implementing 75 projects and has an additional 100 projects under development. INTRODUCTION

  11. Some current trends in tourism i • There is an increasing awareness at the level of governments of the social, economic and environmental importance of the tourism sector, and of the impacts it causes on destinations. • Globally, the responsibilities of governments in tourism development have tended to become more decentralized, with many mandates being gradually devolved to local levels of governance. • There is an increased awareness, on the part of tourists, of the need for sustainability. Tourists are becoming more interested in addressing negative impacts of tourism (e.g. environmental degradation of destinations). INTRODUCTION

  12. Some current trends in tourism i • There are clear and growing threats to basic tourism attractions – pristine beaches, healthy coral reefs, and megafauna / charismatic species. • Tourism has traditionally been a source of financing forprotected areas, and this contribution is growing. • Many destinations have set up Local Agenda 21 processes to ensure that tourism is integrated into sustainable development plans, and the CBD’s ecosystem-based approach has been applied in many sustainable tourism destinations, to ensure that the needs of all players are considered. INTRODUCTION

  13. Policy and strategy tools >> Sustainable tourism development policies and strategies • Tourism policies and strategies reflect the ways and means to achieve the goals and milestones for sustainability. • Policies often refer to institutional setups that allow governance of tourism development. Policies may not be site-specific and may apply across all of a country’s area. • Strategies are more action-oriented and often linked to a destination or region. • Examples: Tourism policies, inter-ministerial and inter-agency cooperation mechanisms, revenue retention schemes for parks, training for professionals / communities. GOOD PRACTICES

  14. CASE STUDY National Ecotourism Strategy and Action Plan (Bulgaria) • Two-year, multi-stakeholder consultation process • 12 regional associations were established to develop regional action programmes, in line with the National Strategy. These action programmes then directed the development of the National Action Plan. • Some key outcomes: • Support for business development and marketing through training, assistance packages, quality assurance and branding. • Legislative changes made so that tax revenue generated from tourism remains in the municipality and must be directed to tourism-related infrastructure. GOOD PRACTICES Source: UNEP and UNWTO 2005

  15. Policy and strategy tools >> Sustainable Tourism Destination Plans • Destination Plans are usually site- or destination-specific and describe a future state and process (e.g. required human resources, infrastructure, etc.) to achieve a desired vision. • Destination Plans can include the following elements: • ▪ Inventory of attractions, equipment, and other factors affecting a destination • ▪ A strategic analysis of strengths, weaknesses, threats and opportunities in relation to the destination’s competition • ▪ An examination of market trends and resident needs/expectations, and human resources / labour • The plan requires extensive consultation, comprehensive collection of information and an understanding of resources, social and political dynamics, influence of interest groups. GOOD PRACTICES

  16. CASE STUDY Master planning as an effective tool for destination management (Croatia) • Development of local-level destination plans with mid-term goals have been identified as a key factor to the success of Croatia’s tourism sector. • Local destination plans were developed with the involvement of a broad network of stakeholders. • The plans have focused on the means by which competitiveness can be increased (e.g. product plans, investment plans, and action plans). • Have taken a pragmatic, implementation-oriented approach (e.g. the Istrian destination plan realized 50% of its investments within the first 3-years of its implementation. GOOD PRACTICES Source: Cizmar and Lisjak 2007

  17. Policy and strategy tools >> Sustainable Tourism Projects • Sub-components of the destination plan may be packaged as specific sustainable tourism projects, as a strategy to facilitate fundraising, management and evaluation. • A governance structure needs to be set up for each project, taking into account the mandates, capacities and interests of different agencies and players. • The full participation of local players must be integrated in a project from the outset, recognizing their motivations, goals, and expectations. • Consistent capacity building to address the limitations of local institutions needs to be factored in from the design phase to ensure that significant components of projects live on. GOOD PRACTICES

  18. CASE STUDY Gudigwa cultural village (Botswana) • The NGO Conservation International (CI) and the Bugakhwe Conservation Cultural Trust initiated the Gudigwa community-based eco-cultural tourism project (northern Botswana) in 1999. • The project aimed to establish a commercially viable camp which would allow visitors to experience the cultural richness of the local San community. • The camp was a commercial failure under CI’s management, despite providing some positive social impacts. • Lesson learned: Early involvement of private sector professionals is essential to ensure value chain linkages and operational integrity. GOOD PRACTICES Source: Conservation International 2008

  19. Legal and normative tools Legal and normative tools constitute the enabling environment that facilitates the development of sustainable tourism, and include some of the following:  ▪ Tourism laws (specifying conditions and requirements for licensing operation of hotels, tour operations and services). ▪ Requirements and norms regulating environmental impact assessments. ▪ Zoning and land-use, construction laws / codes that affect tourism development. ▪ Environmental Impact Assessments. GOOD PRACTICES

  20. CASE STUDY Land Use Management & Zoning Regulations (Egypt) • In 2001, the Tourism Development Authority initiated a land use management planning and zoning process for the Southern Red Sea region. • The Land Use Management Plan that was developed was based on a recognition that resources and sites within the region have different capacities to accommodate various tourism activities. • Five different management zones proposed, corresponding to differing grades of sensitivity. • Zoning regulations led to the modification and in some cases cancellation of development plans in some zones. GOOD PRACTICES Source: UNEP and UNWTO 2005

  21. Measuring, baseline information, reporting, auditing, monitoring and evaluation This tool includes: • Development of indicators and measurementsystems to determine acceptablelevels of impact from tourism. • Identification and collection of baseline information to serve as reference formonitoring programmes. • Establishment of goals and references through benchmarking. By comparing how problems have been solved at other sites, and by taking into consideration the particular circumstances of each destination, an action plan for improvements can be implemented. • A critical component of any strategy is theconcept of carrying capacity and limits of acceptable change. GOOD PRACTICES

  22. CASE STUDY Environmental management indicators for ecotourism (China) • Visitation rates to China’s 42.84 km² Tianmushan Nature Reserve nearly doubled over the 1990s to 52,160 people. • An environmental management programme was established using the Pressure-State-Response (PSR) model. • In total, forty-five indicators were developed, designed to monitor the state of tourist destinations, the impacts of tourism activities, and the effectiveness of management measures. • The programme acknowledged the influence of tourism activities on the ecosystem as a whole, including areas beyond the reserve boundaries. • Two key issues restricting tourism development were vegetation damage by hikers, and water supply shortage. GOOD PRACTICES Source: Li 2004

  23. Economic, financial and market-based instruments Economic, financial and market-based instruments include some of the following: ▪ Concessions for tourism operations in parks ▪ Incentives for sustainable tourism (e.g. tax incentives) ▪ Implementing or modifying taxes, charges and fees to redirect tourism flows ▪ Provision of sound visitor management infrastructure ▪ Sustainable tourism certification ▪ Awards and marketing support to pioneers ▪ Voluntary reporting, guidelines / codes of conduct. GOOD PRACTICES

  24. CASE STUDY Certification for Sustainable Tourism (Costa Rica) • The Certification for Sustainable Tourism (CST) programme rewards socially and environmentally responsible businesses. • Certification is awarded by an independent commission to businesses that can demonstrate, upon external audit, compliance with established sustainability criteria. • The CST has proven to have had a positive effect on Costa Rica’s tourism industry, as it establishes a set of credible, objective standards for sustainability. • As a government-led initiative, the CST programme has the advantage of being free-of-charge to participating business, while also maintaining high technical and ethical standards. GOOD PRACTICES Source: UNEP and UNWTO 2005

  25. Capacity Building Capacity building may include:  ▪ Networks of specialists, distance education tools, virtual conferences and webinars; ▪ Establishment of destination management / marketing organizations with a social and environmental focus; ▪ Development of a standard curriculum on sustainable tourism for training/education institutions; ▪ Establishment of Public-Private-Partnerships and tourism trade associations; ▪ Professional development tools for small and medium enterprises (e.g. business incubators, special credit lines, and marketing support). GOOD PRACTICES

  26. CASE STUDY Train-the-trainers workshops (Brazil) • Conservation International in partnership with other NGOs and the Ecoplan:net Institute held a series of train-the-trainer workshops in Brazil in 1994. • 35 tourism professionals were trained to be interactive instructors / facilitators of 5-day ecotourism workshops. • Key outcomes: • Between 1994 and 2004, 55 workshops were held in Brazil, with more than 600 participants. • Approximately 80 new products (e.g. tours, eco-lodges, attractions) have been designed with the workshop methodology. GOOD PRACTICES Source: Hillel 2009

  27. Promotion, marketing and communication • Most travelers are still unaware of the potential impact their consumer choices can have on the sustainability of tourism. • Sustainability sells – if the message is well-presented, and pricing is competitive, customers are inclined to prefer providers that benefit destinations. • Interpretation techniques can be employed by tourism providers to communicate natural and cultural heritage values, create a sense of place and awareness, and to offer a quality tourism experience. • Governments can steer strategic planning in tourism towards sustainability by targeting its marketing investment (e.g. the Costa-Rican government uses its tourism marketing investment preferentially on businesses recognized by its CST label). GOOD PRACTICES

  28. CASE STUDY Tour operators initiative (TOI) for sustainable tourism development (Mexico) • With the support of related UN agencies, TOI is an international alliance of tour operators engaged in advancing the UN goal of sustainable development. • TOI signed a cooperation agreement in 2006 with the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) to support biodiversity conservation in areas of high-volume tourism. • Outcomes:In Riviera and Costa Maya (Mexico), TOI and its partners contributed to the drafting of the National Tourism Law, specifically focusing on coastal conservation and responsible tourism in protected areas, and recommended rules for Siting, Design and Construction at the Yucatán Peninsula, formally approved in February 2009. GOOD PRACTICES Source: UNWTO 2009

  29. RESOURCES ? >> Tourism Guidelines, Manuals and Reference Materials (SCBD) Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity. 2004. Guidelines on Biodiversity and Tourism Development. (SCBD) Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity. 2007. Managing Tourism & Biodiversity: User’s Manual on the CBD Guidelines on Biodiversity and Tourism Development. UNEP and WTO. 2005. Making Tourism More Sustainable: A Guide for Policy Makers. UNEP. 2008. Sowing the Seeds of Change: An Environmental and Sustainable Tourism Teaching Pack for the Hospitality Industry. IUCN. 2008. Biodiversity: My Hotel in Action. A Guide to Sustainable Use of Biological Resources.

  30. RESOURCES ? >> Tourism Guidelines, Manuals and Reference Materials UNEP. 2005. Forging links between protected areas and the tourism sector: How tourism can benefit conservation. UNEP. 2003. Tourism and Local Agenda 21: The role of local authorities in sustainable tourism. Note: A complete list of references for this presentation can be found in the accompanying booklet Tourism for Nature & Development: A Good Practice Guide. Photo credits: Slide 1, top to bottom -;; de Jong-Lantink; Pooh.Slide 2, top: Michael Sheridan.

  31. For more information, please contact: Secretariat for the Convention on Biological Diversity 413 Saint Jacques Street, Suite 800 Montreal QC , Canada H2Y 1N9 Tel: +1 514 288 2220 Fax: +1 514 288 6588 E-mail: Web: Technical support for this project has been provided by UNEP and UNWTO. Financial support has been provided by the French Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs.