christianity n.
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  1. Christianity

  2. Christianity is a monotheistic religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus as presented in the New Testament. • Adherents of Christianity, known as Christians, believe that Jesus is the only begotten Son of God and the Messiah (Christ) prophesied in the Hebrew Bible (the part of scripture common to Christianity and Judaism). • Christian theology claims that Jesus Christ is a teacher, the model of a virtuous life, the revealer of God, as well as an incarnation of God, and most importantly the savior of humanity who suffered, died, and was resurrected to bring about salvation from sin. • Christians maintain that Jesus ascended into heaven, and most denominations teach that Jesus will return to judge the living and the dead, granting everlasting life to his followers. Christians call the message of Jesus Christ the Gospel ("good news") and hence label the earliest written accounts of his ministry as gospels.

  3. Christianity is classified as an Abrahamic religion. • Christianity began as a Jewish sect in the eastern Mediterranean, quickly grew in size and influence over a few decades, and by the 4th century had become the dominant religion within the Roman Empire. • During the Middle Ages, most of the remainder of Europe was christianized, with Christians also being a (sometimes large) religious minority in the Middle East, North Africa, and parts of India. Following the Age of Discovery, through missionary work and colonization, Christianity spread to the Americas and the rest of the world. • Christianity has played a prominent role in the shaping of Western civilization at least since the 4th century. As of the early 21st century, Christianity has between 1.5 billion and 2.1 billion adherents, representing about a quarter to a third of the world’s population.

  4. 1. Beliefs • In spite of important differences of interpretation and opinion, Christians share a set of beliefs that they hold as essential to their faith.

  5. 1.1 Creeds • Creeds (from Latin credo meaning "I believe") are concise doctrinal statements or confessions, usually of religious beliefs. • They began as baptismal formulas and were later expanded during the Christological controversies of the fourth and fifth centuries to become statements of faith.

  6. The Apostles Creed • The Apostles Creed (Symbolum Apostolorum) was developed between the second and ninth centuries. • It is the most popular creed used in worship by Western Christians. • Its central doctrines are those of the Trinity and God the Creator. Each of the doctrines found in this creed can be traced to statements current in the apostolic period. • i. belief in God the Father, Jesus Christ as the Son of God and the Holy Spirit • ii. the death, descent into hell, resurrection, and ascension of Christ • iii. the holiness of the Church and the communion of saints • iv. Christ’s second coming, the Day of Judgement and salvation of the faithful.

  7. The Nicene Creed, largely a response to Arianism, was formulated at the Councils of Nicaea and Constantinople in 325 and 381 respectively and ratified as the universal creed of Christendom by the Council of Ephesus in 431. • The Chalcedonian Creed, developed at the Council of Chalcedon in 451, though rejected by the Oriental Orthodox Churches, taught Christ "to be acknowledged in two natures, inconfusedly, unchangeably, indivisibly, inseparably": one divine and one human, and that both natures are perfect but are nevertheless perfectly united into one person. • The Athanasian Creed, received in the western Church as having the same status as the Nicene and Chalcedonian, says: “We worship one God in Trinity, and Trinity in Unity; neither confounding the Persons nor dividing the Substance.”

  8. Most Christians (Roman Catholics, Orthodox and Protestants alike) accept the use of creeds, and subscribe to at least one of the creeds mentioned above. A minority of Protestants, notably Restorationists, a movement formed in the wake of the Second Great Awakening in the 19th century United States, oppose the use of creeds.

  9. 1.2 Jesus Christ

  10. The central tenet of Christianity is the belief in Jesus as the Son of God and the Messiah (Christ). • A depiction of Jesus as a child with his mother, Mary, the Theotokos of Vladimir (12th century). • Christians believe that, as the Messiah, Jesus was anointed by God as ruler and savior of humanity, and hold that Jesus’ coming was the fulfillment of messianic prophecies of the Old Testament. • The core Christian belief is that, through the death and resurrection of Jesus, sinful humans can be reconciled to God and thereby are offered salvation and the promise of eternal life.

  11. Jesus, having become fully human, suffered the pains and temptations of a mortal man, yet he did not sin. As fully God, he defeated death and rose to life again. • According to the Gospels of Matthew and Luke, Jesus was conceived by the Holy Spirit and born from the Virgin Mary.

  12. 1.3 Death and Resurrection of Jesus • Christians consider the resurrection of Jesus to be the cornerstone of their faith and the most important event in human history. • Among Christian beliefs, the death and resurrection of Jesus are two core events on which much of Christian doctrine and theology is based.

  13. The death and resurrection of Jesus are usually considered the most important events in Christian Theology, partly because they demonstrate that Jesus has power over life and death and therefore has the authority and power to give people eternal life.

  14. 1.4 Salvation • Protestantism teaches that eternal salvation is a gift that comes to an individual by God’s grace, sometimes defined as "unmerited favor", on the basis of one’s personal belief in and dependence on the substitutionary death and resurrection of Jesus Christ. • It is the belief that one can be saved (rescued) from sin and eternal death. • Other concepts used in the study of how salvation is accomplished include conversion, faith, justification, regeneration, and others.

  15. The crucifixion of Jesus is explained as an atoning sacrifice, which, in the words of the Gospel of John, "takes away the sins of the world." One’s reception of salvation is related to justification. • The operation and effects of grace are understood differently by different traditions.

  16. 1.5 Trinity • Trinity refers to the teaching that the one God comprises three distinct, eternally co-existing persons; the Father (from whom the Son and Spirit proceed), the Son (incarnate in Jesus Christ), and the Holy Spirit. • Together, these three persons are sometimes called the Godhead, although there is no single term in use in Scripture to denote the unified Godhead.

  17. 1.5.1 Trinitarians • Trinitarianism denotes those Christians who believe in the concept of the Trinity. Trinity is defined as one God in three Persons.

  18. 1.5.2 Non-trinitarians • Nontrinitarianism refers to beliefs systems that reject the doctrine of the Trinity. • Various nontrinitarian views, such as adoptionism or modalism, existed in early Christianity, leading to the disputes about Christology. • Nontrinitarianism later appeared again in the Gnosticism of the Cathars in the 11th through 13th centuries, in the Age of Enlightenment of the 18th century, and in Restorationism during the 19th century. Non-Trinitarians often believe in Jesus as the Son of God, and not the same as God.

  19. 1.6 Scriptures • Christianity regards the Bible, a collection of canonical books in two parts (the Old Testament and the New Testament), as authoritative. • The Bible always includes books of the Jewish scriptures, the Tanakh, and includes additional books and reorganizes them into two parts: the books of the Old Testament primarily sourced from the Tanakh (with some variations), and the 27 books of the New Testament containing books originally written primarily in Greek. • The Roman Catholic and Orthodox canons include other books from the Septuagint which Roman Catholics call Deuterocanonical. Protestants consider these books apocryphal.

  20. 1.6.1 Roman Catholic Interpretation • In antiquity, two schools of exegesis developed in Alexandria and Antioch. Alexandrine interpretation, exemplified by Origen, tended to read Scripture allegorically, while Antiochene interpretation adhered to the literal sense, holding that other meanings (called theoria) could only be accepted if based on the literal meaning. • Roman Catholic theology distinguishes two senses of scripture: the literal and the spiritual.

  21. 1.6.2 Protestant Interpretation • Protestant Christians believe that the Bible is a self-sufficient revelation, the final authority on all Christian doctrine, and revealed all truth necessary for salvation. • Protestants characteristically believe that ordinary believers may reach an adequate understanding of Scripture because Scripture itself is clear (or "perspicuous"), because of the help of the Holy Spirit, or both.

  22. Original intended meaning • Protestants stress the meaning conveyed by the words of Scripture, the historical-grammatical method.

  23. 1.7 Afterlife and Eschaton • Most Christians believe that human beings experience divine judgement and are rewarded either with eternal life or eternal damnation. • This includes the general judgement at the Resurrection of the dead as well as the belief (held by Catholics, Orthodox and some Protestants) in a judgement particular to the individual soul upon physical death.

  24. 2. Worship

  25. Christians assemble for communal worship on Sunday, the day of the resurrection, though other liturgical practices often occur outside this setting. • Scripture readings are drawn from the Old and New Testaments, but especially the Gospels. • There are a variety of congregational prayers, including thanksgiving, confession, and intercession, which occur throughout the service and take a variety of forms including recited, responsive, silent, or sung.

  26. Worship can be varied for special events like baptisms or weddings in the service or significant feast days. • In the early church Christians and those yet to complete initiation would separate for the Eucharistic part of the worship. • In many churches today, adults and children will separate for all or some of the service to receive age-appropriate teaching. Such children’s worship is often called Sunday school or Sabbath school (Sunday schools are often held before rather than during services).

  27. 2.1 Sacraments • In Christian belief and practice, a sacrament is a rite, instituted by Christ, that mediates grace, constituting a sacred mystery. • The most conventional functional definition of a sacrament is that it is an outward sign, instituted by Christ, that conveys an inward, spiritual grace through Christ. The two most widely accepted sacraments are Baptism and the Eucharist.

  28. 2.2 Liturgical Calendar • Roman Catholics, Anglicans, Eastern Christians, and traditional Protestant communities frame worship around a liturgical calendar. • Christian groups that do not follow a liturgical tradition often retain certain celebrations, such as Christmas, Easter and Pentecost. A few churches make no use of a liturgical calendar.

  29. 2.3 Symbols • The cross, which is today one of the most widely recognised symbols in the world, was used as a Christian symbol from the earliest times. • Among the symbols employed by the primitive Christians, that of the fish seems to have ranked first in importance.

  30. Christians from the very beginning adorned their tombs with paintings of Christ, of the saints, of scenes from the Bible and allegorical groups. • The catacombs are the cradle of all Christian art. • Other major Christian symbols include the chi-rho monogram, the dove (symbolic of the Holy Spirit), the sacrificial lamb (symbolic of Christ’s sacrifice), the vine (symbolising the necessary connectedness of the Christian with Christ) and many others.

  31. 3. History and origins • 3.1 Early Church and Christological Councils • Christianity began as a Jewish sect in the eastern Mediterranean in the mid-first century. • From the beginning, Christians were subject to persecution. This involved punishments, including death, for Christians such as Stephen and James, son of Zebedee. • Christianity was legalized in the 4th century. From at least the 4th century, Christianity has played a prominent role in the shaping of Western civilization.

  32. 3.2 Early Middle Ages • The church also entered into a long period of missionary activity and expansion among the former barbarian tribes. Catholicism spread among the Germanic peoples (initially in competition with Arianism), the Celtic and Slavic peoples, the Hungarians and the Scandinavian and Baltic peoples. • Around 500, monasticism became a powerful force throughout Europe, and gave rise to many early centers of learning, most famously in Ireland, Scotland and Gaul, contributing to the Carolingian Renaissance of the 9th century. • From the 7th century onwards, Islam conquered the Christian lands of the Middle East, North Africa and much of Spain, resulting in oppression of Christianity and numerous military struggles, including the Crusades, the Spanish Reconquista and wars against the Turks. • The Middle Ages brought about major changes within the church. Pope Gregory the Great dramatically reformed ecclesiastical structure and administration. • In the early 8th century, iconoclasm became a divisive issue. In the early 10th century, western monasticism was further rejuvenated through the leadership of the great Benedictine monastery of Cluny.

  33. 3.3 High and Late Middle Ages • In the west, from the 11th century onward, older cathedral schools developed into universities Originally teaching only theology, these steadily added subjects including medicine, philosophy and law, becoming the direct ancestors of modern western institutions of learning.

  34. From 1095 under the pontificate of Urban II, the Crusades were launched. • Over a period stretching from the 7th to the 13th century, the Christian Church underwent gradual alienation, resulting in a schism dividing it into a Western, largely Latin branch, the Roman Catholic Church, and an Eastern, largely Greek, branch, the Orthodox Church. • Beginning around 1184, following the crusade brought about by the Cathar heresy, various institutions, broadly referred to as the Inquisition, were established with the aim of suppressing heresy and securing religious and doctrinal unity within Christianity through conversion and prosecution.

  35. 3.4 Protestant Reformation and Counter-Reformation Partly in response to the Protestant Reformation, the Roman Catholic Church engaged in a substantial process of reform and renewal, known as the Counter-Reformation or Catholic Reform. Christianity spread to the Americas, Oceania, East Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa. Throughout Europe, the divides caused by the Reformation led to outbreaks of religious violence and the establishment of separate state religions in Western Europe.

  36. 3.5 Christianity in the Modern Era • In the Modern Era, Christianity was confronted with various forms of skepticism and with certain modern political ideologies such as liberalism, nationalism and socialism. • Christian commitment in Europe dropped as modernity and secularism came into their own in Western Europe, while religious commitments in America have been generally high in comparison to Western Europe. • The late 20th century has shown the shift of Christian adherence to the Third World and southern hemisphere in general, with western civilization no longer the chief standard bearer of Christianity.

  37. 4. Demographics • With an estimated number of adherents that ranges between 1.5 billion and 2.1 billion, split into around 34,000 separate denominations, Christianity is the world’s largest religion. • The Christian share of the world’s population has stood at around 33 per cent for the last hundred years. • It is still the predominant religion in Europe, the Americas, the Philippines, and Southern Africa.

  38. In most countries in the developed world, church attendance among people who continue to identify themselves as Christians has been falling over the last few decades. • Some sources view this simply as part of a drift away from traditional membership institutions, while others link it to signs of a decline in belief in the importance of religion in general.  

  39. 5. Denominations • There is a diversity of doctrines and practices among groups calling themselves Christian. These groups are sometimes classified under denominations, though for theological reasons many groups reject this classification system. • Christianity may be broadly represented as being divided into five main groupings: Roman Catholicism, Eastern Orthodoxy, Oriental Orthodoxy, Protestantism and Restorationism.

  40. 5.1 Roman Oatholicism and other Catholic Groups • The (Roman) Catholic Church is comprised of those particular churches, headed by bishops, in communion with the Pope, the Bishop of Rome, as its highest authority in matters of faith, morality and Church governance. • The Roman Catholic Church through Apostolic succession traces its origins to the Christian community founded by Jesus Christ. • Catholics maintain that the "one, holy, catholic and apostolic church" founded by Jesus subsists fully in the Roman Catholic Church, but also acknowledges other Christian churches and communities and works towards reconciliation among all Christians. • The Roman Catholic Church is the largest church representing over half of all Christians and one sixth of the world’s population.

  41. Various smaller communities, such as the Old Catholic and Independent Catholic Churches, include the word Catholic in their title, and share much in common with Roman Catholicism but are no longer in communion with the See of Rome. The Old Catholic Church is in communion with the Anglican Communion.

  42. 5.2 Eastern Orthodoxy • Eastern Orthodoxy is comprised of those churches in communion with the Patriarchal Sees of the East, such as the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople. • Like the Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church also traces its heritage to the foundation of Christianity through Apostolic succession and has an episcopal structure, though the autonomy of the individual, mostly national churches is emphasized. • Eastern Orthodoxy is the second largest single denomination in Christianity, with over 200 million adherents.

  43. 5.3 Oriental Orthodoxy • The Oriental Orthodox Churches (also called Old Oriental Churches) are those eastern churches that recognize the first three ecumenical councils — Nicaea, Constantinople and Ephesus — but reject the dogmatic definitions of the Council of Chalcedon and instead espouse a Miaphysite christology.

  44. 5.4 Protestantism • In the 16th century, Martin Luther, Huldrych Zwingli, and John Calvin inaugurated what has come to be called Protestantism. • Most Protestant traditions branch out from the Reformed tradition in some way. • In addition to the Lutheran and Reformed branches of the Reformation, there is Anglicanism after the English Reformation.

  45. The oldest Protestant groups separated from the Roman Catholic Church in the 16th century Protestant Reformation, followed in many cases by further divisions. • Estimates of the total number of Protestants are very uncertain. • A special grouping are the Anglican churches descended from the Church of England and organised in the Anglican Communion.

  46. Some Christians who come out of the Protestant tradition identify themselves simply as "Christian", or "born-again Christian"; they typically distance themselves from the confessionalism and/or creedalism of other Christian communities by calling themselves "non-denominational" — often founded by individual pastors, they have little affiliation with historic denominations.

  47. 5.5 Restorationism • Restorationism is composed of various unrelated churches that believe they are restoring the original church of Jesus Christ and not reforming any of the churches existing at the time of their perceived restorations. • They teach that the other divisions of Christianity have introduced defects into Christianity, which is known as the Great Apostasy. • Additionally, there are the following groups: Christadelphians, Churches of Christ with 2.6 million members, Disciples of Christ with 800,000 members, and The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, the largest denomination of the Latter Day Saint movement with over 13 million members. • Though Restorationists have some superficial similarities, their doctrine and practices vary significantly.

  48. 6. Ecumenism • In the 20th century Christian ecumenism advanced in two ways. One way was greater cooperation between groups • The other way was institutional union with new United and uniting churches. • Steps towards reconciliation on a global level were taken in 1965 by the Roman Catholic and Orthodox churches mutually revoking the excommunications that marked their Great Schism in 1054.