Hybrid Vehicles Jeremy Gillow COM2223
Overview • Introduce benefits regarding hybrids • Explain the empowering technology • Discuss reservations and drawbacks Abbreviations • CO2 – Carbon dioxide • HEV – Hybrid Electric Vehicle • MPG – Miles per gallon • ICE – Internal combustion engine • EM – Electric motor • Ni-MH – Nickel Metal Hydride Battery • MPH – miles per hour • HP – horsepower • AT-PZEV – Advanced Technology Partial Zero Emissions Vehicle
Environmental Benefits • CO2, the primary greenhouse gas, has been rising in quantity every year. • Over time the greenhouse effect will increase the average temperature on Earth. • Vehicle emissions are the #1 contributor to air pollution. • Hybrid cars and trucks reduce exhaust emissions by burning less gas and through additional filtration. AT-PZEV models have zero evaporative emissions and are 90% cleaner than normal. Los Angeles Smog
Practical Benefits • Crude oil costs of $55 per barrel have driven the price of gasoline above $2/gallon. • Better gas mileage for hybrids equates to saving money at the gas pump. • More efficient vehicles decrease the United States dependence on foreign petroleum suppliers • Decreased oil demand also lowers supply prices. Hess Gasoline in Melbourne
Vehicle Efficiency Comparison Prius: Toyota Prius Insight: Honda Insight Civic: Honda Civic Hybrid Escape 2: Ford Escape HEV 2WD Escape 4: Ford Escape HEV 4WD Mustang: Ford Mustang F-150: Ford F-150 Pickup Ford Escape HEV, 2004 NY Auto Show
Hybrid Power Train Technology Series: used for trains,buses, and large truckswhere an EM is most efficient for accelerating a large mass. Parallel: used in Honda Insight and Civic hybrid cars. Both ICE and EM can work in tandem, ICE can recharge battery, or braking can recharge. Combination: used in Toyota Prius and Ford Escape hybrids. Allows full electric drive at low speeds and more flexibility in charging.
Technology Continued Ford Economy Monitor Toyota Prius Energy Monitor • Computer displays provide real-time gas economy performance along with hybrid system diagnostic information. • Ni-MH batteries are currently the energy storage medium of choice, but they will be soon replaced by vastly superior ultra-capacitors. Panasonic Ni-MH battery
Hybrid-Electric Integration • Current hybrid models have succeeded with seamless integration between the gas and electric components. • To conserve fuel hybrids will shut down the ICE when coasting to a stop and idling. The engine quickly restarts when the brake is released. • The electronic components are transparent to the driver; the onboard computer makes all decisions regarding the power train. • Hybrids are refueled just like regular cars, no charging needed. Toyota Prius Synergy Hybrid Drive Ford Escape HEV Under-hood
Design Elements To get the maximum fuel efficiency, the Insight and Prius use generous weight reduction, fluid body styling, and special tires to reduce wind and rolling resistance. The Civic and Escape hybrids keep to traditional styling. All four can be equipped with Continuously Variable Transmissions. Honda Civic Hybrid Profile Honda Insight Profile Toyota Prius Profile
Buyer Reservations • Lack of power: most people assume that hybrids have low horsepower and can’t keep up with normal cars. A typical car traveling at 60 mph only requires 20 HP, the rest is for acceleration. Hybrids use ICEs that produce less power, with the EM for compensation during acceleration. • Any new technology is slow to be adopted by the masses, but the surge in hybrid popularity has caused prices to inflate above MSRP sticker. The cost savings on gasoline currently does not offset the initial price, but there is a $2,000 federal tax deduction for 2005 and $500 for 2006. • Repairs on hybrids typically have to be conducted bythe dealership, since most mechanics aren’t familiarwith the new electrical systems. • The warranty on hybrids is the same as traditional cars,covers all of the new electric components and battery,and is intended to reassure drivers and hold resalevalues high. • Toyota Prius: 60 mo. / 60,000 mi. • Honda Insight & Civic: 36 mo. / 36,000 mi. • Ford Escape: 36 mo. / 36,000 mi. Hybrid Mechanic
Future Challenges • DaimlerChrysler has said that to succeed hybrids must offer dynamic handling and driving pleasure, consume less fuel than a diesel engine, be sold at competitive price, and have a high resale value. • Manufacturers have met every design challenge to make hybrids comfortable and convenient to drive, so the primary goals are to continue improving economy and public reception. • Ten hybrids in 2005 compared with 3 in 2004, so there are more options for consumers. Hydrogen-fueled hybrids will someday replace gasoline-powered models, with the sole exhaust emission of water vapor. Currently General Motors is sponsoring a US Postal Service demo in Washington, DC of fuel cell vans.
Web References • http://www.cs.ualberta.ca/~bulitko/aws/photo/03-08-10476km/index-Pages/Image133.html • http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/3732274.stm. • http://auto.howstuffworks.com/hybrid-car.htm. • http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/1605/ggccebro/chapter1.html. • http://www.fueleconomy.gov/feg/hybrid_sbs.shtml • http://www.fueleconomy.gov/feg/hybrid_news.shtml • http://www.fueleconomy.gov/feg/tax_hybrid.shtml • http://autos.msn.com/research/vip/overview.aspx?modelid=11254&src=LeftNav • http://autos.msn.com/research/vip/overview.aspx?modelid=11450&src=vip • http://autos.msn.com/research/vip/overview.aspx?modelid=11440&src=vip • http://autos.msn.com/research/vip/overview.aspx?modelid=11048&src=LeftNav • http://automobiles.honda.com/models/model_overview.asp?ModelName=Civic+Hybrid • http://automobiles.honda.com/models/model_overview.asp?ModelName=Insight • http://www.toyota.com/prius/ • http://www.fordvehicles.com/suvs/escapehybrid/ • http://unfcc.int/resource/docs/convkp/kpeng.html • http://hybridcars.about.com/od/glossaryofhybridcarterm/g/pzev.htm • http://oregonfuture.oregonstate.edu/gallery/23.html
Textual References • Alexander, David. “Fueling the Next Generation.” Automotive Engineering Intl. Sept 2004. 73-7. • Carney, Dan. “Lightweight Vehicle Engineering.” Automotive Engineering Intl. Aug 2004. 65-8. • Jost, Kevin. “GM Fuel Cell for US Postal Service.” Automotive Engineering Intl. Sept 2004. 10-3. • Jost, Kevin. “Ultracapacitors Charge Ahead.” Automotive Engineering Intl. Sept 2004. 46-53. • Patterson, Allen. “The 2004 Toyota Prius.” Home Power. Sept 2004. 100-5.