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  1. Overview of Abaqus Lecture 1

  2. Overview • SIMULIA • What is Abaqus FEA? • Overview of Abaqus/CAE • Starting Abaqus/CAE • Overview of Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit • Abaqus Conventions • Documentation • Abaqus Environment Settings • Abaqus Fetch Utility • Abaqus/CAE Checklist • Working with the Model Tree • Workshop 1: Linear Static Analysis of a Cantilever Beam

  3. SIMULIA

  4. SIMULIA • SIMULIA is the Dassault Systèmes brand that delivers a scalable portfolio of Realistic Simulation solutions including • The Abaqus product suite for Unified FEA  • Multiphysics solutions for insight into challenging engineering problems • Lifecycle management solutions for managing simulation data, processes, and intellectual property • Headquartered in Providence, RI, USA • R&D centers in Providence and in Velizy, France • Global network of regional offices and distributors

  5. SIMULIA SIMULIA Headquarters:Providence, Rhode Island Offices: USA: California Indiana Michigan Ohio Rhode Island Texas Overseas: Australia Austria China Finland France Germany (2) India Italy Japan (2) Korea Netherlands Sweden UK (2) Representatives: Overseas: Argentina Brazil Czech Republic Malaysia New Zealand Poland Russia Singapore South Africa Spain Taiwan Turkey

  6. What is Abaqus FEA?

  7. What is Abaqus FEA? • Suite of finite element analysis modules

  8. What is Abaqus FEA? • The structural analysis “solver” modules, Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit, are complementary and integrated analysis tools.* • Abaqus/Standard is a general-purpose finite element module. It provides a large number of capabilities for analyzing many different types of problems, including many nonstructural applications. • Abaqus/Explicit is an explicit dynamics finite element module. • Abaqus/CAE incorporates the analysis modules into a Complete AbaqusEnvironment for modeling, managing, and monitoring Abaqus analyses and visualizing results. * Abaqus/CFD is a computational fluid dynamics analysis product; it is not discussed in this course.

  9. Overview of Abaqus/CAE

  10. Overview of Abaqus/CAE • Integrates modeling, analysis, job management, and results evaluation seamlessly. • Provides the most complete interface with the Abaqus solver programs available. • Uses neutral database files that are machine independent. • Can be customized to create application-specific systems. Abaqus/CAE main user interface

  11. Overview of Abaqus/CAE • Modern graphical user interface (GUI) of menus, icons, and dialog boxes • Menus provide access to all capabilities. • Icons accelerate access to frequently used features. • Dialog boxes allow you to input alphanumeric information and to select various options. Mechanical property submenu Elastic material form Visualization toolbox icons

  12. Overview of Abaqus/CAE • Consistent environment • Functionality is presented in modules. • Each module contains a logical subset of the overall functionality. • Once you understand the presentation of one module, you can easily understand the presentation of the other modules.

  13. Overview of Abaqus/CAE Property Part Assembly • Position parts for initial configuration. • Create the part geometry (and regions for sections, if necessary) • Define materials • Define additional part regions • Define and assign sections to parts or regions Step Interaction Load • Define analysis steps and output requests • Define contact and other interactions on regions or named sets, and assign them to steps in the analysis history • Apply loads, BCs, and ICs to regions or named sets; and assign them to steps in the analysis history Mesh Job Visualization • Examine results • Submit, manage, and monitor analysis jobs • Split assembly intomeshable regions and mesh

  14. Overview of Abaqus/CAE • Model Tree and the Results Tree • The Model Tree provides you with a graphical overview of your model and the objects that it contains. • The Results Tree is used to display analysis results from output databases as well as session-specific data such as X–Y plots. • Both trees provide shortcuts to much of the functionality of the main menu bar, the module toolboxes, and the various managers. • Some features of the Model and Results trees are discussed next.

  15. Overview of Abaqus/CAE • Tree features • Navigation tool • Context sensitive RMB actions edit/create/suppress/query • Can effectively build most of your model from the tree • Model query/auditing • E.g., shows number of sections, materials, constraints currently defined • Shows status of certain features/items (invalid part, suppressed feature) • Comprehensive view of Abaqus model data • “Containers” expand to show objects and their hierarchy • Step dependent objects (e.g., BCs) appear in the STEP and LOAD containers

  16. Overview of Abaqus/CAE • Tool tips • Float the mouse over a container or item… • “Pruning” the tree • You can set a certain container as the new “root” to reduce clutter • Keyboard shortcuts • Hide/show • Expand/collapse • Search • Delete items • Switch context • Filtering

  17. solid extrusion cut fillet Overview of Abaqus/CAE • Models are feature-based and parametric • A feature is a meaningful piece of the design. Models are constructed from numerous features; for example: • Geometric features • Solid extrusion, wire, cut, fillet, etc. • Assembly features • Wheel must be concentric with the axle, the blank lies exactly in contact with the rigid die, etc. • Mesh features • Partition the mesh into different regions for different meshing techniques, seed different edges with different mesh densities, etc. Part with several annotated features

  18. sketch ofextrusion cross-section extrusion depth Solid extrusion parameters Overview of Abaqus/CAE • A parameter is a modifiable quantity that provides additional information for a feature; for example: • Solid extrusion parameters • Sketch of extrusion cross-section, depth of extrusion. • Cut • Sketch of cut cross-section, depth of cut. • Fillet parameter • Fillet radius.

  19. solid extrusion cut fillet Overview of Abaqus/CAE • Features often have parent-child relationships, such that the existence of the child depends on the existence of the parent; for example: • Delete the solid extrusion, and the hole and fillet cannot exist. • Delete the part, and the mesh cannot exist. • Abaqus/CAE always asks to make sure that you want to delete the parent and its child features. • parent: solid extrusion • child: cut • child: fillet Example of Parent-ChildRelationships among Features

  20. Overview of Abaqus/CAE • Features can be modified by editing their parameters. • Aspects of the model can be regenerated. • Parametric studies are easy and natural. • Features can also be deleted or temporarily suppressed with the option to resume them later. • If a parent feature is deleted or suppressed, all its child features are also deleted or suppressed.

  21. Overview of Abaqus/CAE • Interoperability • Abaqus/CAE is based on the concepts of parts and assemblies, which are common to many CAD systems. • Parts can be created within Abaqus/CAE. • Geometry can be imported from other packages and exported to other packages. • Existing Abaqus meshes can be imported for further processing. • Individual models can be copied between databases.

  22. Dock Sites Overview of Abaqus/CAE • Dockable toolbars • Allow you to modify the layout and appearance of toolbars • Individual toolbars can be moved by dragging the toolbar grip • Toolbars can be “docked” at any of four docking regions located around the main window • Floating toolbars can be located anywhere • Orientation of floating toolbars can be controlled

  23. Overview of Abaqus/CAE • Custom toolbars • Include shortcuts to functions not in standard toolbars or toolboxes • Can collect commonly used functions • To add a function to a custom toolbar: • Tools → Customize • Select the function in the Customize dialog box • Drag it onto the custom toolbar. • Assign an icon to represent the toolbar • Can be moved, docked, floated, or hidden in the same way as standard toolbars

  24. Overview of Abaqus/CAE • Custom keyboard shortcuts • Available for most functions. • E.g., the key combination [Shift] + [Ctrl] + P may be assigned to Create Part dialog box • Default keyboard shortcuts for common functions (save, print, etc.) can also be reassigned. • Keyboard shortcuts must use one of the following keys or key combinations: • Any function key except F1 • [Alt] + [Shift] + key • [Ctrl] + key. You can also add [Alt] or [Shift] to modify any keyboard shortcut that includes the [Ctrl] key.

  25. Overview of Abaqus/CAE • View manipulation • Toolbar to control view (pan, zoom, rotate, etc.). • Alternatively, can use a combination of keyboard and mouse actions: • Rotate: [Ctrl]+[Alt]+MB1. • Pan: [Ctrl]+[Alt]+MB2. • Zoom: [Ctrl]+[Alt]+MB3. • You can reconfigure these combinations to mimic the view manipulation interfaces used by other common CAD applications

  26. Overview of Abaqus/CAE • 3D compass • View manipulation tool • Provides a quick and convenient way to change model view • Appears by default in each viewport; can be turned off if necessary • Uses three axes to indicate current model orientation • Can be clicked, dragged and oriented; by clicking different areas, specialized view manipulations can be performed: • Rotate freely about the model's center of rotation. • Rotate about a fixed axis. • Pan camera along a fixed axis. • Pan camera within a fixed plane. • Apply a predefined view.

  27. Model database(.cae) Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Overview of Abaqus/CAE • What is a model database file (extension .cae)? • Contains all the information for any number of models. • Typically contains one model or several related models. • Only one model database can be opened in Abaqus/CAE at a time.

  28. Model 1 parts material properties 1 assembly 1 analysis history Overview of Abaqus/CAE • What is a model? • Contains all the necessary information for an analysis. • Contains any number of parts and their associated properties. • Is independent of other models in the model database. • Objects such as parts and materials can be copied between different models in the same database. • Contains a single assembly of part instances, including the associated contact interactions, loads and boundary conditions, mesh, and analysis history.

  29. + = User B Master Model User A Overview of Abaqus/CAE • Models can be imported into one database from another • Model data from the imported database is copied into the current database. • E.g., parts, sections, assemblies, materials, loads, BCs, etc. • Analysis job definitions and custom data are not copied

  30. Overview of Abaqus/CAE • What is Python? • Command language used by Abaqus/CAE. • Uses range from command scripting to creating customized applications. • Powerful and easy-to-use public domain, object-oriented programming language. • There are several books available on Python programming. • Additional learning materials are available online at www.python.org. • It is not necessary to learn Python programming to use Abaqus/CAE.

  31. Overview of Abaqus/CAE • Commands issued during an Abaqus/CAE session are saved in journaling files containing Python scripts. Replay (.rpy) file All commands executed during a session, including any mistakes, are saved in this file. Journal (.jnl) file All commands necessary to recreate the most currently saved model database (.cae) are saved in this file. Recover (.rec) file All commands necessary to recreate the model database (.cae) since it was most recently saved are saved in this file. • Journaling files can be modified in any way appropriate for the Python language.

  32. Starting Abaqus/CAE

  33. Starting Abaqus/CAE • Three options available: • Command line • abaqus cae = filename.cae • Opens Abaqus/CAE in current directory • Start menu (Windows) • Opens Abaqus/CAE in startup directory (set during installation) • Working directory can be changed (see next slide) • Double-click .cae or .odb file in Windows folder • Opens Abaqus/CAE in current directory

  34. Starting Abaqus/CAE • Selecting a working directory • Can select a working directory • Default is startup directory • Subsequent file operations will use this directory for reading/writing • Job files will be written to the new working directory • This makes it easier to manage job files • E.g., keep all job files in a per-job directory

  35. Overview of Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit

  36. Overview of Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit • Abaqus/Standard • General-purpose finite element code. • Extensive and independent libraries: • Elements • Materials • Analysis procedures • Robust contact capability

  37. Overview of Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit • Abaqus/Standard analysis types • Static stress/displacement analysis: • Rate-dependent or rate-independent response • Eigenvalue buckling load prediction Articulation of an automotive boot seal

  38. Overview of Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit • Linear dynamics: • Natural frequency extraction • Modal superposition • Harmonic loading • Response spectrum analysis • Random loading • Linear/Nonlinear dynamics: • Transient dynamics • Implicit or explicit integration Harmonic excitation of a tire

  39. traction free rolling braking Overview of Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit • Other analysis types available in Abaqus/Standard: • Heat transfer • Acoustics • Mass diffusion • Steady-state transport Steady-state rolling of a tire on a drum

  40. Overview of Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit • Multiphysics with Abaqus/Standard: • Thermal-mechanical analysis • Structural-acoustic analysis • Thermal-electrical (Joule heating) analysis • Linear piezoelectric analysis • Fully or partially saturated pore fluid flow-deformation • Fluid-structure interaction Thermal stresses in an exhaust manifold

  41. Overview of Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit • Abaqus/Explicit • General-purpose finite element code for explicit dynamics • Designed for optimal computational performance with large models running many (10,000 to 100,000+) time increments • Extensive element and material libraries • Robust contact capability

  42. Overview of Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit • Abaqus/Explicit (cont’d) • Simulates high speed dynamic events such as drop tests. • Explicit algorithm for updating the mechanical response. Drop test of a cell phone

  43. Overview of Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit • Abaqus/Explicit (cont’d) • Also a powerful tool for quasi-static metal forming simulations. • Annealing is available for multistep forming simulations Rolling of a symmetric I-section

  44. adiabatic fully coupled temperature-displacement Overview of Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit • Multiphysics with Abaqus/Explicit • Thermal-mechanical analysis • Fully coupled: Explicit algorithms for both the mechanical and thermal responses • Can include adiabatic heating effects • Structural-acoustic analysis • Fluid-structure interaction Two-stage forging, using ALE—contours of temperature

  45. Overview of Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit • Special features of Abaqus/Explicit: ALE • Adaptive meshing using ALE techniques allows the robust solution of highly nonlinear problems. • Mesh adaptivity is based on solution variables as well as minimum element distortion. • Elements concentrate in areas where they are needed. • Adaptation is based on boundary curvature. Bulk metal forming High speed impact

  46. Eulerian mesh rod material Overview of Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit • Special features of Abaqus/Explicit: Coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian (CEL) • Define a domain in which material can flow for an Eulerian analysis • Flow problems • Structural problems with extreme deformation

  47. Overview of Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit • Comparing Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit • Abaqus/Standard • A general-purpose finite element program. • Nonlinear problems require iterations. • Can solve for true static equilibrium in structural simulations. • Provides a large number of capabilities for analyzing many different types of problems. • Nonstructural applications. • Coupled or uncoupled response. • Abaqus/Explicit • A general-purpose finite element program for explicit dynamics. • Solution procedure does not require iteration. • Solves highly discontinuous high-speed dynamic problems efficiently. • Coupled-field analyses include: • Thermal-mechanical • Structural-acoustic • FSI

  48. Abaqus Conventions

  49. Common systems of consistent units Abaqus Conventions • Units • Abaqus uses no inherent set of units. • It is the user’s responsibility to use consistent units. • Example: • N, kg, m, s or • N, 103 kg, mm, s etc.

  50. Abaqus Conventions • Example: Properties of mild steel at room temperature