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Supporting the Academic Success of Students With Emotional, Behavioral, or Mental Disorders An introduction to the NAMI Resource Manual.
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Supporting the Academic Success of Students With Emotional, Behavioral, or Mental Disorders An introduction to the NAMI Resource Manual
This presentation is a guide to help you become more knowledgeable about the needs of a student with an emotional, behavioral, or mental disorder so you are better prepared to create a school environment conducive to his or her academic success. • This is merely an overview. More detailed information is found in the NAMI Resource Manual.
Guide to the NAMI Resource Manual • Section 1 – Introduction to SED & IDEA • Questions and Answers about IDEA • Fact Sheet on Emotional Disturbance • Treatment of Children with Emotional Disorders • Questions Often Asked by Parents About Special Education Services
Guide to the NAMI Resource Manual • Section 2 – Accommodations, Interventions, and Modifications • Cognitive Dysfunction • Disorders of Written Expression • Accommodations and Interventions • Accommodating Students with Depression and Bipolar Disorder • Interventions for Chronic Behavior Problems • Pitfalls in Behavior Modification Plans
Guide to the NAMI Resource Manual • Section 3 – Fact Sheets on Various Disorders • Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia • Anxiety, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder • Asperger Syndrome • ADHD • Depression and Bipolar Disorder • Co-Occurring Substance Abuse • Schizophrenia • Suicide • Tourette’s Syndrome
Guide to the NAMI Resource Manual • Section 4 – Additional Resources • Internet Resource List of Federal Agencies, Advocacy and Professional Organizations, and Academic Centers • Resource Guide to Books and Audiovisual Resources and Organizations Concerned with Brain Disorders in Children and Adolescents • Indiana Statewide Disability Information • Local/Community Resources
You are encouraged to share this information with parents so they can learn how to support their child’s education both in the classroom and at home. • All parts of this manual are considered masters for you to copy and distribute to parents and others on the teaching team. • Please include author and/or publication information as it appears on the article or fact sheet.
1 in 10 children and adolescents have a mental illness severe enough to cause impairment. • Only 1 in 5 of these children receive any treatment. • For nearly half of the children who do receive services, the school was the only provider.
Untreated mental illness among youthleads to school failure. 50% of students labeled with emotional or behavioral disorders drop out of high school. Only 42% of those who remain in school graduate with a diploma.
Untreated mental illness among youthleads to unemployment. Only 60% of youth with mental illnesses are employed a year after leaving high school.
Untreated mental illness among youth leads to entrance into the criminal justice system. 65% of males and 75% of females in the juvenile justice system have at least one psychiatric diagnosis.
Untreated mental illness among youth can lead to suicide. • Suicide is the 3rd leading cause of death among children ages 10 – 19 • Acute psychiatric illness is the single most common and dangerous trigger for suicide. • 90% of youth who died by suicide were suffering from depression or another diagnosable and treatable mental illness at the time of death. • Nearly as many teens die from suicide as all natural causes combined. • Another 520,000 children require medical services each year as a result of suicide attempts.
Investing in early identification and intervention for serious emotional disturbances helps children graduate and lead independent and productive lives. Identifying these youth must become a major public health effort. Schools are the ideal place for this to occur.
Children with serious emotional, behavioral or mental disorders need: • Parents, teachers and school staff who understand how SED impacts learning • Appropriate accommodations, modifications, and interventions in the classroom
Children who have been hospitalizedhave a crucial need for: • Parents, educators, and medical professionals who understand how the illness affects learning • Reduced stress • Some children may need time in a therapeutic day school or residential treatment center while treatment options are explored.
Parents Need: • To understand how their child’s brain disorder may impact school functioning and learning • To know the educational options available • To know their child’s rights under IDEA and ADA
Parents Also Need: • To understand how to work with school staff to develop the necessary accommodations and school placement their child needs to benefit from his or her education • To understand how to support their child’s education both in the classroom and outside of the classroom
Medical Professionals need: • To understand how brain disorders can impact school functioning and learning • To understand that some accommodations may be necessary and to know how to provide supportive documentation
Educators and School Staff Need: • To become knowledgeable about what to expect of a student with a brain disorder • To understand how symptoms of the child’s brain disorder may impact school functioning and learning • To understand what accommodations are needed to allow the child to learn in the least restrictive environment where the child can experience success
Educators and School Staff Also Need: • To know how to gauge the student’s capacity for learning during various phases of the illness, treatment, and recovery • To know what medications the child is taking, the possible side effects, and how medications may impact school performance
Definition of Emotional Disturbance A condition exhibiting one or more of the following characteristics over a long period of time and to a marked degree that adversely affects his or her educational performance: • An inability to learn which cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory or health factors • An inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships with peers and teachers • Inappropriate types of behavior or feelings under normal circumstances • A general pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression • A tendency to develop symptoms or fears associated with personal or school problems • Any or all of which adversely affects educational performance
Educational Implications Educational programs for children with an emotional disturbance need to include: • Help with: • Mastering academics • Developing social skills • Increasing self-awareness, self-control, and self-esteem • Emotional and behavioral support
Cognitive Dysfunction Children with psychiatric disabilities may experience problems with the ability to: • Pay attention • Remember and recall Information • Process information quickly • Respond to information quickly • Think critically, categorize and organize information • Problem solve
Cognitive Dysfunction can be treated with: • Remediation Techniques • Compensatory Strategies • Adaptive Approaches For more specific information, please refer to the Handbook, “Dealing with Cognitive Dysfunction Associated with Psychiatric Disabilities”, in Section 2 of the NAMI Resource Manual.
Accommodations for Impaired Concentration, Focus, and Memory • Provide hard copies of all notes and board work • Assist with focusing or remaining on-task • Monitor for complete assignment record and that necessary materials are packed • Provide extra set of books at home
More Accommodations for Impaired Concentration, Focus, and Memory • Allow extended time on homework/projects • Reduce homework – eliminate homework during periods of instability • Provide testing accommodations • Break down large assignments into small pieces and conference regularly to help keep on schedule
Accommodating Writing Difficulties • Encourage keyboard training • Use tape recorder • Use a scribe • Don’t penalizefor handwriting or spelling errors • Allow extra time • Provide paper copies of notes For more information on Disorders of Written Expression, please refer to the article, “Why Johnny and Jenny Can’t Write”, in the NAMI Resource Manual.
Children returning to the classroom from a period of hospitalization are often on new medications, many times on two, three or more medications. • All medications to treat psychiatric illness have potential side effects that are likely to affect stamina, focus, and mood. • If the child is newly diagnosed, he or she may go through a number of medication changes and adjustments.
Common Medication Side Effects • Thirstiness, frequent urination, diarrhea, stomach cramps, nausea. • Children on lithium may need a water bottle at their desk. • Some children may need a permanent restroom pass. • Hand tremors • Cognitive dulling • Fatigue or sleepiness • Hunger and significant weight gain • Visual blurring
Children with Psychiatric Disabilities may have significant sleep disturbances, which can make arriving to school alert and on time very difficult. • Children may experience several hours of irritability or dysphoria, fuzzy thinking or “cobwebs”, and somatic complaints such as stomach aches and headaches upon awakening in the morning.
Accommodating Sleep Disturbances • Late arrival • Less demanding subjects 1st and 2nd periods • Test taken at best time for functioning • Movement to overcome sleepiness • Brightly lit area • Assistance last period to catch up on anything missed early in the day
In-School Counseling • Peer relationships • Self-advocacy • Study, organizational, time-management, test taking skills • Strategies to monitor symptoms • Help coping with feelings of frustration • Anger management skills
Permission to Leave Room • When child is unable to cope and needs to get away • Predetermined safe place & safe person • Predetermined discreet signal to allow for a graceful exit • Consider a permanent pass • Stay with child if suicidal ideation is expressed
Behavior Intervention Plan & Modified Discipline • Consequences should not be incorporated as part of initial plan • Even positive consequences may lead to frustration if the child is unable to comply • Be proactive – prepare the environment, get accommodations and modifications in place • There is no empirical evidence to support applying consequences to “rage attacks” • Reconsider school policy of suspensions for “rage attacks”
Other Accommodations • Preferential Seating • Remediation and Accommodations for LDs • Resource Room – especially 1st & last periods • Match student’s need/learning style with teacher • Prepare for upcoming changes in routine
Added Adult Supervision • In high stress places – cafeteria, bus, recess • 1:1 if in frequent trouble due to their symptoms • Extra support for transitions • Peer interactions • Getting started and staying focused on tasks
For more suggestions for Accommodations and Modifications for children with Emotional, Behavioral or Mental Disorders, please refer to the following articles in Section Section 2 of the NAMI Resource Manual: “List of Appropriate School-Based Accommodations and Interventions” “Accommodating Students with Mood Lability” “Interventions for Chronic Behavior Problems” “Pitfalls in School-Based Behavior Modification Plans”
Brain Disorders • Are a disease of the brain • Are not caused by poor parenting • Are not a defect in character • Are chronic But…
For further information about this resource or other available resources from NAMI, please contact NAMI Indiana (317) 925-9399 (800)677-6442 www.namiindiana.org