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Digital Photography 101 for Library Applications

Digital Photography 101 for Library Applications

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Digital Photography 101 for Library Applications

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  1. Digital Photography 101for Library Applications Instructor: Jeanne Moje jmmoje@berkeley.edu An Infopeople Workshop Winter 2004

  2. Workshop Agenda • Digital Camera Overview • Hints on Taking Photos • Who Owns That Image? • Photo Design and Repair • Managing Your Digital Photo Collection

  3. Digital Camera Overview

  4. Why Digital Photography? • Advantage over film cameras • Immediate feedback / results • Don’t need to develop film • Ease of image manipulation • Add interest to your web site • Publicize and document library events • Pictures are worth a thousand words • Provide material for library displays

  5. Overview of Digital Cameras • Lens types • Case sizes • Pixel depth • Zoom power • Storage media types • Older memory formats • Newer memory formats • Alternative memory formats

  6. Lens Types • Regular fixed lens • with or without zoom • Digital SLR (single-lens reflex) • More control over depth of field • Interchangeable lenses • Large format • For incredible detail in a large image • Huge file sizes

  7. Digital Camera Case Sizes • Listed in order of price • Compact • Micro • Medium • Large

  8. Pixel Depth • Why would you want more pixels? • 3 megapixels • 4 megapixels • 5 megapixels • Foveon technology 3.4 • Three layers to each pixel • Equivalent to 10 megapixels

  9. Pixel Print Comparison • To maintain quality, choose higher megapixel settings if you need larger print sizes • 1 megapixels ≅ 4 x 6 • 2 megapixels ≅ 5 x 7 • 3 megapixels ≅ 8 x 11 • 4 megapixels ≅ 11 x 14 • 5 megapixels ≅ 12 x 16

  10. Zoom Power • Optical zoom changes the image by moving the lens • Digital zoom changes the image by cropping (enlarging the pixels) • Interchangeable lenses on SLR digital cameras – expensive! • Gives you more shutter speed control • Wide-angle, panoramic, specialty lenses

  11. Types of Storage Media • Some can be used in multiple portable devices • Digital cameras, notebooks, PDAs, music players, car stereo • Standardize on a flash memory type • Secure Digital (SD) - up and coming • Compact Flash (CF) - still a good choice

  12. Older Memory Formats • These formats are being phased out • SmartMedia (SM) • MultiMediaCard (MMC) • Mini-CDs, floppy disks • Compact Flash (CF) • More devices use CF that any other media type • High capacity

  13. Newer Memory Formats • Memory stick (MS) • only used by Sony • xD-Picture Card • Fujifilm, Olympus • Projected highest capacity • Secure Digital (SD) • Projected highest use • Broadest support

  14. Alternative Memory Formats • CF Mini hard drives • IBM microdrive • Up to 1 GB in storage • Digital camera off-load units

  15. Now For Our Camera Tour…

  16. Finally, Taking Photos…

  17. Before You Start • Practice with the camera • Double-check your camera settings • Carry extra batteries • Experiment with flash • How close to subject? • Test red-eye settings

  18. Hints On Taking Photos • Use a tripod or lean against stationery object • Conserve batteries • Limit use of screen viewer • Is camera turned off when not in use?

  19. Automatic & Forced Flash • Automatic • Fires automatically as required • Useful for ordinary photography • Forced Flash • Photograph backlit scenes • Use outside in shade • Color correct fluorescent light

  20. Suppressed & Red-Eye Flash • Suppressed Flash • Indoors where flash is ineffective • Photos taken through glass • Red-Eye Reduction • Pre-flashes so subject’s eyes appear more natural • Fires automatically as required

  21. Slow-Synchro Flash Types • Slow-Synchro • Slow shutter speed for taking pictures of people at night • Will show both subject and night time backdrop • Recommend tripod • Red-Eye Reduction plus Slow-Synchro

  22. Example of Flash Icons Red eye reduction Red eye reduction plus slow synchro Forced flash Suppressed flash Slow synchro

  23. White Balance Control • Will attempt to correct the color for given light sources such as: • Daylight fluorescents • Warm white fluorescents • Cool white fluorescents • Incandescent lights • Outdoors • Shade

  24. Delayed Shutter Response • Anticipate shutter lag • Shutter delay varies between cameras • Ask your subject to hold still! • Image-writing delay while the camera stores the photo • Some cameras are able to store images more quickly

  25. Taking Photos of People • Avoid red-eye • Use red-eye flash function • Ask subject to look away from flash • Use natural light • Don’t get too close • Distortion • You can crop image later

  26. Flattery Or Kindness? • Avoid harsh shadows • Try different viewpoints • Use natural light instead of flash • Red clothing will overpowerskin tones

  27. Hold Still! • Posing versus natural action • Take numerous photos of same pose • Subject may relax • Pose will look more natural • Shutter lag makes naturalaction shots difficult

  28. Connect That Camera…

  29. Connecting to a Computer • Install camera software • Check camera battery charge or plug in power adapter • Choice of connections • Camera to computer • Memory media to computer • Copy or move files from camera to computer

  30. Problems? • Where to go if you have problems with your camera • Camera batteries weak? • What if your computer won’t talk to the camera? • Software updates andother annoyances

  31. Indoor Lighting • Fluorescent light is green • Incandescent light is red • North light bulbs are blue • “Color-corrected” light bulbs are best • Use two light sourcesif possible

  32. Photographing Objects • Avoid parallax effect if object has straight lines • Align camera to object • Align lines of object with frame of viewfinder or LCD monitor • Use a tripod or stand • Macro lenses

  33. Lighting Objects • Lighting • Two lights are best • 45° angle to object • Measure distance of lights • Use a “color key” for fine reproductions

  34. Camera Purchase Decision

  35. Before You Choose • What is your budget? • Will it connect to your computer? • Evaluate your photographic needs • Pixel depth • Power supply requirements • Memory needs (16 MB to 1 GB+) • Do you have other portable devices? • Zoom capability needed?

  36. How To Choose A Camera • Try out cameras for a good fit • Does it fit your hands? • Controls easy to locate? • Display screen large enough? • Light enough to carry? • Zoom power? • Purchase at a store or buy online? • Keep an eye on sale prices

  37. Bookmarks Topics to Visit • Digital camera glossaries and dictionaries • Digital camera overview • Vendor web sites fordigital cameras andphotography

  38. Taking Photos Outdoors

  39. Outdoor Lighting • Sunlight causes shadows • North light is blue • Overcast days • Indirect lighting best for people • Use fill-in flash or reflector

  40. Taking Photos Outdoors • Sunrise, sunset • High noon • Overcast • Fill-in flash • Few filters availablefor digital cameras • Glare and reflections • Dust and smog

  41. Legal Issues…

  42. Do The Right Thing! • Get a signature release from your subjects • Copyright considerations • Infopeople course materialsavailable

  43. Signature Releases • Who owns that photograph? • If you put a photo of a person on the web, get a signature release • Legal issues • Sample signature releases

  44. Copyright Considerations • Again, who owns that photograph? • Legal issues • Get permission! • Protect your images

  45. Bookmarks Topics to Visit • Infopeople course • Library Laws For The Web Environment - 2002 • Signature release samples • Copyright law

  46. The Art Part…

  47. Photo Design and Repair • Design and color hints • Cropping • Resizing • Color correction

  48. Design Hints • View as abstract artwork (turn the photo upside down) • Save as black & white for a fresh view • Look at negative spaces • Avoid clutter

  49. The Rule of Thirds in Design • Hum Beethoven’s Fifth • Imagine a tic-tac-toe grid on your image • Line objects on the grid • Offset the focal point within the composition • Check for proportions of two-to-one

  50. Value, Contrast & Luminance • Value • Relative lightness or darkness of a color • Black & white photography helps you see value • Contrast • Difference between highest and lowest luminance values • Luminance relates to light