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How do we know that Earth is geologically active? PowerPoint Presentation
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How do we know that Earth is geologically active?

How do we know that Earth is geologically active?

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How do we know that Earth is geologically active?

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  1. How do we know that Earth is geologically active? • Volcanoes • Seismology • Measuring the temperature inside • All of the above • 1 and 2

  2. How does the cooling of planets and potatoes vary with size? • Larger makes it harder for heat from inside to escape • Larger has a bigger ratio of volume (which needs to cool) to surface area (the surface is where cooling happens) • Larger takes longer to cool • All of the above

  3. What is necessary for a differentiation to occur in a planet? • It must have metal androck in it • It must be a mix of materials of different density • Material inside must be able to flow • All of the above • 2 and 3

  4. Do you think differentiation is likely to happen in a very small planet? • Yes • No • Maybe

  5. What is the source of Earth’s magnetic field? • Magnetic rocks • Magnetized iron in Earth’s crust • Magnetized iron in Earth’s core • Molten metal circulating inside of Earth, moving electrons like in a wire

  6. What is the greenhouse effect? • Something bad that happens to the atmosphere • Something bad that happens to the atmosphere if we lose too much ozone • Something bad that is happening on Earth, not other planets • 1, 2, and 3 • Visible light enters an atmosphere and heats a planet, then the planet emits infrared light that is trapped by the atmosphere

  7. Why are smaller terrestrial bodies such as Mercury or the Moon “geologically dead”? • They don’t have volcanoes • They cooled off faster than Earth did • They don’t have erosion • They were hit by fewer meteorites • They are made of different materials than Earth

  8. What seems to have made the very long cliffs seen on Mercury? • Volcanoes • Earthquakes • Cooling and shrinking when the planet became geologically dead • Meteorite impacts • None of the above

  9. Suppose Venus rotated as fast as Earth. How would this change its relative levels of volcanism, tectonics, and erosion? • All would remain the same - independent of rotation. • Higher levels of all three. • Lower levels of all three. • The same levels of volcanism and tectonics, and a higher level of erosion. • Higher levels of volcanism and tectonics, and the same level of erosion.

  10. Suppose we could magically replace Venus’ actual atmosphere with an atmosphere identical to Earth’s. Could liquid water exist on its surface? • No, the runaway greenhouse effect would ensure that liquid water would immediately evaporate. • No, the low pressure would ensure that liquid water would immediately evaporate. • Yes, the surface temperature would be well below the boiling point of water. • Yes, the conditions would be exactly as on Earth. • Yes, but only at the poles.

  11. What is the structure of Jupiter like? • Rocky core, thin atmosphere • Rocky core, thick atmosphere • Gaseous on the outside, then liquid hydrogen, more dense metallic hydrogen, rocky core • Gaseous on the outside, then liquid hydrogen, then helium, then the other elements

  12. Jupiter does not have a large metal core like Earth. How can it have a magnetic field? • The magnetic field is left over from when Jupiter accreted • Its magnetic field comes from the Sun • It has metallic hydrogen inside, which circulates and makes a magnetic field • That’s why its magnetic field is weak

  13. Auroras (called Northern Lights in the United States): • Are found on Earth • Are found on Jupiter • Indicate a magnetic field is present • Result when particles in the solar wind hit a planet • All of the above

  14. What is the weather usually like on Jupiter? • High speed, low density clouds • Low speed, high density clouds • Winds of hundreds of miles per hour, thick clouds • Clear and very cold • Many bright stars at night, since Jupiter is closer to the stars than Earth

  15. Jupiter is about three times as massive asSaturn, but only slightly larger. Why? • It is made of stronger material • It is made of weaker material • Adding mass increases gravity and compresses gasses • Because they are made of different gasses • None of the above

  16. What is the most geologically active world we know of in the solar system? • Earth–due to its earthquakes and volcanoes • Mercury, the hottest planet • Mars • Jupiter • Jupiter’s moon Io

  17. How does Io get heated by Jupiter? • Auroras • Light • Infrared radiation • Jupiter “squeezes it” by pulling harder on one side than the other • Volcanoes

  18. Which of the following would increase the tidal heating of a moon? • A more elliptical orbit • Larger size • Orbit around a larger planet • All of the above • 1 and 3

  19. How do astronomers think Jupiter generates internal heat? • Fusion • Chemical reactions • Friction due to its fast rotation • Shrinking and releasing gravitational potential energy • Tidal forces

  20. Why do Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune all have rings? • Rings were left over from solar system formation • They all captured particles • All four planets had a large moon that disintegrated • All have small moons and small orbiting particles that constantly collide and make rings