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Current Trends in Gambling Research

Current Trends in Gambling Research

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Current Trends in Gambling Research

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  1. Current Trends in Gambling Research Jackie Lemaire, M.Sc.Addictions Foundation of Manitoba National Aboriginal Gambling Awareness Conference

  2. AFM • AFM serves Manitoba through 23 offices that distributes throughout three regions:Winnipeg, Western and Northern. • Vision - Manitobans living free from the harms of alcohol, other drugs and gambling. • Mission - To enhance the health of Manitobans by reducing the harm of alcohol, other drugs and gambling through leadership in education, prevention, rehabilitation and research. National Aboriginal Gambling Awareness Conference

  3. Objectives • Research on “Research” • Native American Families – Maternal Gambling Research (Momper, 2005) • Research for Prevention - (Macdonald et al. 2007 and Bergevin et al., 2006) • Evaluation – Coping Skills Training (Rychtarik et al., 2006) • Treatment - (Mackay et al., 2007) National Aboriginal Gambling Awareness Conference

  4. Research on Research • Opportunities to gamble ↑; gambling research ↑ • Explored 2,246 citations published between 1903-2003 • Gambling-related research – grown at a exponential rate • Most prevalent topics – pathology, risk-taking, decision-making and addiction • 1999-2003 – epidemiology, drug abuse, comorbidity and neuroscience National Aboriginal Gambling Awareness Conference Reference: Shaffer, J., Stanton, M. & Nelson, S. (2006). Trends in Gambling Studies Research: Quantifying, Categorizing, and Describing Citations. J Gambl Stud, 22: 427-442.

  5. New CitationsGambling Research40 years Number of new citations 1964 1976 2003 1988 National Aboriginal Gambling Awareness Conference

  6. Prevalence of Primary Keywords1903-2003 vs 1999-2003 1903 to 2003 % National Aboriginal Gambling Awareness Conference

  7. Prevalence of Primary Keywords1903-2003 vs 1999-2003 1999 to 2003 % National Aboriginal Gambling Awareness Conference

  8. Conclusions based on Citation Research • Some areas (e.g., pathological gambling and decision making) have been investigated more than others • Neuroscience, genetic and drug trial studies – recent movements • Trend – to study not only gambling behavior but the context within which it occurs • Need for procedural standards in citations management National Aboriginal Gambling Awareness Conference

  9. Momper, 2005 • Mixed method study • Explored women’s casino gambling, parenting, parenting self-efficacy beliefs, social supports and children beh problems • Tribal casino – Great Lakes Indian Reservation • 150 Native American mothers with children between 6 and 15 yrs old National Aboriginal Gambling Awareness Conference

  10. Hypotheses • the ↑ gambling, the ↑ beh problems in children • ↑ access to emotional/instrumental support = ↑ parenting self-efficacy • ‘adequate’ parenting = ↓ beh problems in children • several variables of interest (e.g. access to social support) will serve to moderate between maternal gambling and child beh problems National Aboriginal Gambling Awareness Conference

  11. Methods • Ecological and Social Cognitive theory-driven • Data collection – 2 phases (questionnaire; in-depth interviews with subgroup selected randomly) • 100% response rate • PI – Native American; RA – Elder from the community National Aboriginal Gambling Awareness Conference

  12. Measures • 30 item Behavior Problem Index (BPI) • Pathological Gambling Diagnostic Scale - PGDS (Stinchfield and Winters; 2001) based on DSM-IV criteria • Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) – Mother Supplement versions for Middle Child and Early Adol • Parenting Efficacy Scale (PES) • 3 social support scales (PSS-FA, PSS-FR, McLoyd et al., 1994) • Financial strain scale (McLoyd et al., 1994) • Demographics National Aboriginal Gambling Awareness Conference

  13. Who are the Mothers? • Of the 150 respondents, 75% biological mothers, 25% non-biological • Age range: 22-82; Mean age: 41 yrs old • Children: 81 girls; 69 boys. Children age range: 6-15. Children mean age: 10.5 yrs old • ~33% High School (HS); over 50%↑HS; 6% Bachleor’s Degree • 75% employed with 88% of these jobs on the reservation • ~60% single; ~30% household income between $20,000 and $30,000 National Aboriginal Gambling Awareness Conference

  14. Results - Correlations • ↑ PG = ↑Gambling Frequency, ↓ parenting in the home, ↑ child beh problems • ↑ parenting in the home = ↑ parenting self efficacy, ↑ access to social support from family and friends, ↑ instrumental support and ↓ child beh problems • Unexpectedly, mothers' greater access to social support was not associated with child behavior problems. National Aboriginal Gambling Awareness Conference

  15. Results – Results- Correlations • ↑ Edu = employment and ↑ income • Single = ↓ income, ↑ financial strain, ↓ parenting in the home • ↑ income = employment, ↓ financial strain, ↑ parenting in the home and ↑ access to social support FM • ↑ financial strain = ↑ PG, ↑ child beh problems and ↓ parenting in the home and ↓ parenting self efficacy National Aboriginal Gambling Awareness Conference

  16. Results – Results- Regression • ↑ financial strain and ↓ parenting in the home – unique predictors of child beh problems; accounting for 9% of the variance • Social support – FM moderated the rel’t between gambling freq and child beh problems • Also, access to social support, parenting self-efficacy, and parenting in the home environment did not moderate the relationship between maternal gambling and child behavior problems. • Mothers who gambled frequently were more likely to experience a child with beh problems when the child was a boy vs. a girl National Aboriginal Gambling Awareness Conference

  17. Results – Results- Qualitative • Themes emerged from the in-depth interviews: • Mothers’ concerns regarding spending money and time at the casino • Guilt and remorse – affect on children and families • Positive economic benefits of the jobs and education available • Increased opportunities to socialize and reduce stress while gambling • No culturally appropriate gambling treatment program on the reservation National Aboriginal Gambling Awareness Conference

  18. Results – Implications • Maximized our ability to understand the context of Native American mothers' gambling behaviors. • Findings will be used to inform culturally appropriate policies and programs that target Native American families. • Target interventions that address their needs more effectively. • Additionally, the results will contribute towards a much needed nationwide data base of gambling on reservations. National Aboriginal Gambling Awareness Conference

  19. Evaluation ResearchRychtarik et al. 2006 • Individuals living with partner who is experiencing problems with gambling – sig. psychological distress • Systemic research on intervention to help the spouse/partner has been limited and usually only involving those in treatment National Aboriginal Gambling Awareness Conference

  20. Methods • 23 individuals – responding to media advertisements • Phone screen • In-person assessment • Criteria – partner had gambled in the past 3 months, partner score (via participant) of 5+ on SOGS, no professional treatment or self help involvement for gambler or CSO in past 3 months, married or cohabiting for at least one year and participant score of less than 5 on SOGS and no evidence of a substance abuse disorder. • Native American Families – Maternal Gambling Research (Momper, 2005) • Stress & Coping – Research for Prevention • Gender & Treatment Research • Evaluation – Coping Skills Training National Aboriginal Gambling Awareness Conference

  21. Sample • Majority – women; average age – 43 yrs old • 74% married and 52% were employed • 56% told their partner they were seeking help • Partners (via participants) averaged 11.39 on SOGS and had a gambling problem for 14.67 years • 35% of partners and 26% of participants had sought help in the past National Aboriginal Gambling Awareness Conference

  22. Design • Two-group, pretest-posttest design • Pre-treatment assessment • Randomized design – 10 weekly sessions of coping skills training or a 10-week delayed treatment condition • Posttreatment/postdelay assessment • Technicians blind to treatment assignment • Posttreatment follow-up data were available from 96% of the original sample National Aboriginal Gambling Awareness Conference

  23. Treatment Conditions • Goal – improve partner’s functioning • 10 weekly, individual sessions of manualized treatment based on stress and coping • 1st session – education and introduction to skills/models, remaining sessions – review of material and homework, discussion on diaries, new topical material and practice situations, coaching, modeling, role-playing, feedback,application, etc. • 3 Masters-level counselors administered the treatment National Aboriginal Gambling Awareness Conference

  24. Measures • Coping Skills Acquisition • Gambler Situation Inventory • Coping Questionnaire • Participant Functioning • Beck Depression Inventory • Beck Anxiety Inventory • Anger Expression Index of the State Trait Anger Expression Inventory • Partner Gambling National Aboriginal Gambling Awareness Conference

  25. Results • Skill training resulted in a large sig increase in both GSI cognitive and behavioral coping • Tolerance subscale of the CQ differed sig between the groups – Tolerance was negatively associated with posttreatment GSI cognitive and beh skill • The treatment condition experienced a decrease in depressive symptoms as compared to those in delayed treatment • Partner functioning – no sig diff • Broader beh skill acquisition mediated the CST treatment effect observed • Gender & Treatment Research • Evaluation – Coping Skills Training National Aboriginal Gambling Awareness Conference

  26. Prevention ResearchCAMH Researchers 2007 • CAMH Researchers • Objective – Development and evaluation of a school-based problem gambling prevention curriculum • Program – focused on coping skills, random events knowledge and self-monitoring skills • Evaluation Results – Study 1 – inconclusive [small ↑Random Events Knowledge Test (REKT) scores] – Study 2 – evidence of sig improvement in REKT and knowledge of coping skills • Overall results – knowledge based material on random events and coping skills can be taught • Need further development and evaluation – self-monitoring and coping resources National Aboriginal Gambling Awareness Conference

  27. Prevention-related ResearchBergevin et al. 2006 • Objective – central variables of stress, coping and gambling severity were examined among high school students • Results • Direct evidence that more severe adolescent gamblers experience increased stress and cope less effectively with negative life events. • The rel’t between life stress and gambling severity is mediated by less effective coping styles • Important gender differences – gender-sensitive prevention and intervention programs National Aboriginal Gambling Awareness Conference

  28. Treatment Research[Mackay, T., Lemaire, J., & Patton, D. (2007, March). Evaluation of the Manitoba Gambling Residential Rehabilitation Program. Poster Presented at the 2007 Alberta Gambling Research Institute Conference] • Residential Treatment Program PG – relatively new • Research – growing • AFM Parkwood Gambling Rehabilitation Program (Brandon, Manitoba) • Treatment outcomes – monitored for several years • 202 individuals • Researchers contact clients at 3, 6, and 12 months National Aboriginal Gambling Awareness Conference

  29. Treatment Research • At 3 months, slightly more F return to gambling (RTG) than M (~50% vs ~30%) • At 6 months, both M and F RTG at ~60% • At 12 months, M RTG just over 40% and F remain at about 60% • At 12 months, even though some have returned to gambling, the frequency of gambling has decreased – whereas almost 90% report to gamble daily or st/wk at intake, just over 20% report this at 12 months • See sig decreases in financial effects over time – this stabilizes National Aboriginal Gambling Awareness Conference

  30. The Future…..??? • Aboriginal-driven research – off and on reserve • Focus on research partnerships – two heads are better than one • Movement from “replication overload” to “organized gambling research agenda” • Continue to monitor problem gambling but to focus on longitudinal studies which provide more than just ‘snap shots’ • More opportunities to translate information for action National Aboriginal Gambling Awareness Conference

  31. Contact Information Jackie Lemaire, M.Sc. Research Analyst Addictions Foundation of Manitoba 1-204-944-7067 www.afm.mb.ca jlemaire@afm.mb.ca National Aboriginal Gambling Awareness Conference