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The EXTERMINATOR of Waterborne Diseases in Rural Areas, Emergencies and Disasters PowerPoint Presentation
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The EXTERMINATOR of Waterborne Diseases in Rural Areas, Emergencies and Disasters

The EXTERMINATOR of Waterborne Diseases in Rural Areas, Emergencies and Disasters

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The EXTERMINATOR of Waterborne Diseases in Rural Areas, Emergencies and Disasters

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  1. The EXTERMINATOR of Waterborne Diseases in Rural Areas, Emergencies and Disasters

  2. World Urgently Needs Sanitation of Rural Waters • Waterborne epidemics start in rural areas • More and more contamination of water sources • Growing population..Growing Industries..Growing Agriculture = LESS DRINKING WATER • Better to prevent epidemics than to combat them FACTS

  3. UNSAFE DRINKING WATER is theMAINProblem the world face today

  4. For people who live in developed countries, safe drinking water is as close as the nearest tap


  6. People hauls and drinks water from contaminated rivers, rain ponds, shallow wells or buys it from tank trucks storing it in open containers =

  7. World Facts • 5 million people die each year from diseases transmitted through contaminated water • 50% of all hospitalizations in developing countries are from waterborne diseases • 80% of all illnesses in the developing world result from waterborne diseases • At any one time about 1 billion people are suffering from waterborne diseases

  8. WATER is the MOST important need we have in life • Emergencies are more and more frequent • Aid MUST go first to the basic = WATER • Not just provide water but SAFE drinking water • Diarrhea endemic in many countries • Cholera and hepatitis at the turn of the corner • Improving the water quality improves quality of life, and generate savings to the country

  9. World Rural Areas Reality • School children with parasites and diarrhea…how can they learn being chronically ill? • Drop of productivity • Other social programs prone to fail do to unsafe water • Large government cost to cure waterborne diseases • Poor quality of life

  10. WHO’s Statistic • “Acute diarrhea with dehydration is the leading cause of death in children under 5”CAUSED BY UNSAFE DRINKING WATER

  11. Common Water Disinfectants • Oxone • Bromine • UV • Solar • Boiling • Filtering • CHLORINE

  12. Application in Rural Areas • Oxone…………...N/A • Bromine ………..N/A • UV…………………N/A • Solar……………. Very Limited • Boiling……..……It works..but damages the environment killing trees • Filtering………... Does not disinfects. Only works for dissolved and suspended solids • CHLORINE…..the most used in history

  13. Chlorine • Proven benefits • Excellent residuals • Effective killer of micro-organisms

  14. Different Forms of Chlorine • Chlorine gas • Calcium Hypochlorite (HTH) • Commercial Sodium Hypochlorite • Sodium Hypochlorite Generated On-site

  15. Chlorine Gas • Extremely Dangerous • High Dependency from Manufactures • High Dependency on Transportation • Unstable Pricing • Unsure Logistic • Constant Replacement of Equipment • Poor Alternative for Small Aqueducts • Impossible for household-based point of use

  16. Calcium Hypochlorite (HTH) • The MOST EXPENSIVE form of chlorine • Few manufacturers in the world • Total dependency from intermediaries • Unstable, Dangerous • Expensive Inventories • Unfriendly Dosing • Controlled Airlines Transportation

  17. Commercial Sod. Hypo • Expensive inventories • Dangerous to the environment and Operator • Unstable • Dependency from others • Imported Item in most countries • Requires large storage tanks

  18. Sodium Hypochlorite Generated On-Site • Generated from common salt and electricity • Low concentration..not dangerous, fresh, stable • Easy and friendly to dose • Excellent residuals • Inexpensive • Proven in thousands installations • Rapidly accepted by the communities • Specially Designed for Small Communities

  19. History • Originates in New York en 1893 (Wool Process) • Used in 1st World War to cure open wounds (Carrel Dankin Solution.) • Used by YMCA in 1930 as pool disinfectant • Not economic compared to gas chlorine • Development of DSA in the 70’ made it economic

  20. On-Site Technology • Anodes coated with precious metal oxides (DSA) Iridium – Platinum - Rhodium • Cathodes made out of Titanium • H2O + NaCl + e- NaOCl + H2 • Minimum electrodes life 5 years • Operation and maintenance extremely easy

  21. Parameters Considered in design • Lack or deficient electricity • Tropical heat and humidity • Poor preparation of operators • Easy to operate and maintain • Strong, manageable, durable • Inexpensive

  22. AQUACHLOR Sodium Hypochlorite Generated On –Site • Easy to use and maintain. • Designed for harsh tropical conditions • Reliable • Not hazardous to the operator • Most economic way to obtain chlorine. • Generates Sustainable Projects

  23. Perspective • Salt is inexpensive and abundant • SALT + SOLAR ENERGY + WATER = HEALTH • 2 lbs of salt can sanitize 160,000 lit of water and reach more than 5,000 people


  25. SUSTAINABILITY • Generate more chlorine than needed for water sanitation. Bottle it and sell the excess to the community to generate funds for buying more salt…..

  26. The Center for Disease Control (CDC) along with CARE, Pan American Health Org., PSI have developed a Handbook for Implementing Household-based Water Treatment for the Developing World Please visit the following website to access it WWW.CDC.ORG/SAFEWATER/

  27. AQUACHLOR NaOCl On-Site Technology • Anodes & Cathodes made out of Titanium • Anodes coated with special metal oxides (DSA) • Electrolytic-grade copper cables • H2O + NaCl + e- NaOCl + H2 • Minimum electrodes life 6 years at 24 hours/day

  28. DESIGN PARAMETERS • Lack or deficient electricity • Tropical heat and humidity • Poor preparation of operators • Easy to operate and maintain • Strong, manageable, durable • Inexpensive • Simple look ..Not complicated

  29. Raw Materials • 2.8 lbs salt • 2.5 KWh • 15 Gallons of water • Generate 1 lb of equivalent chlorine good to disinfect 227,000 lit of water AT 2 PPM

  30. Various Models for Different Population Sizes

  31. WATER SANITATION CAPACITIES AC5 Solar - 6 sun/hrs - 30,000 lit at 1ppm AC25 Solar - 6 sun/hrs - 105,000 lit at 1ppm AC50 - 20 hrs - 1 million lit at 1 ppm AC100 - 20 hrs - 2 million lit at 1 ppm AC200 - 20 hrs - 4 million lit at 1 ppm

  32. Solar Systems

  33. (A/C) Systems

  34. Dosing to disinfect water • For 1 ppm: 1 to 6000 or 4 drops per lit • For 2 ppm: 1 to 3000 or 7 drops per liter • Best to measure residual at different times of year • Methods: Gravity, Pumps (AC or DC)

  35. Dosing to Disinfecting Water • For 1 ppm: 1 to 6000 or 4 drops per lit • For 2 ppm: 1 to 3000 or 7 drops per liter

  36. Installation Room • Place P/S higher than reactor tank on a shelve • Place a division between P/S and reactor tank • Cross Ventilation to evacuate gases • Air direction from P/S  Tank • Good Illumination • Protect salt from humidity • Avoid metals in room – they will rust

  37. Electrical Installation • Use a voltage stabilizer if necessary • Tighten the electrode terminals to P.S. with wrench (not by hand) • Never open the P/S “high voltage” • Do not overload circuit with other loads • Always use 3-wire plugs for grounding

  38. Brine Preparation • Chose your formula and stick with it • Pre-mark salt volume in recipient • Pre-mark water level in reactor tank • Pre-dissolve salt ahead of time • Make satured brine (30%) and mix 1 to 10 • Better to have 2 reactors –One in use other in process

  39. Brine Preparation • Strain water in a cloth if too dirty with debris or insects. • Wait until salt is totally dissolved • If salt is from seawater evaporation use 10% more than the indicated in formula to compensate for minerals other than ClNa • Use a lid with hole in the center for electrode alignment

  40. Proper Brine Level

  41. Process • Introduce electrode with Power Supply off • Turn on P/S using timer switch • Do not remove electrode with P/S on • Do not use electrode as agitating paddle

  42. End of Process When Power Supply stops – The solution is ready to use as SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE at a concentration 0.6 % to 0.7 % (6000 to 7000 ppm)

  43. Maintenance • Pour white vinegar into recipient • Rinse electrode with water • Every 1-2 weeks place electrode into vinegar for 30 minutes • Rinse electrode with water • Electrode ready for another reaction • Can use hydrochloric acid at 5% Never stronger • Keep electrode in vinegar while not in use • Clean P/S with a dry cloth

  44. Maintenance Precautions qPower to the generating electrode must be off while the electrode is in the cleaning solution. Rinse the generating electrode thoroughly with water after removal from the storage container and prior to immersion in the electrolysis tank. - Never combine the cleaning solution with the sodium hypochlorite solution.

  45. Proper Acid Level

  46. Proper Acid Level

  47. Operating Precautions Do not smoke or have open flames close to the equipment. Avoid contact of the solution with eyes or skin.   Avoid the solution contacting clothes.   Do not activate the transformer until the electrode is properly immersed in the brine solution. Do not remove the electrode from the brine tank until the transformer has been deactivated. 

  48. Installation Precautions Place the power supply away from the vapors that escape from the process container (opposite direction of the predominant wind.) Observe the necessary precautions with the electrical equipment. This system operates on 220 v and 50 Hz. Make sure the available electrical supply conforms to the requirements of the transformer

  49. Installation Precautions • Make sure the generating cell is properly connected. Reversing the polarity of the cell will permanently damage the electrode. • Locate the power supply away from the possibility of liquid spills.   • Hydrogen and chlorine gas are byproducts of hypochlorite generation. Install the system in a well-ventilated area, preferably with crossed ventilation for proper evacuation of hydrogen.  • - Tighten the nuts/screws that connect the electrode to the power supply snugly with the proper tool.