Chapter 10 Aerobic Exercise Prescriptions for Public Health, Cardiorespiratory Fitness, and Athletics
anaerobic threshold controlled frequency breathing (CFB) cooling-down detraining drafting duration economy of movement fartlek training • frequency • high risk • hypercarpic training • hypoxic training • intensity • interval training • long slow distance (LSD) training • low risk
maximal oxygen consumption rate (VO2 max) maximum heart rate reserve metabollic equivalents (METs) mode moderate risk • rating of perceived exertion (RPE) • repetition training (REP) • target heart rate range • tempo-pace training • ventilatory threshold • VO2 reserve • warming-up
A 25-year-old man with a heart murmur A 30-year-old woman with three risk factors A 45-year-old man A 20-year-old woman who smokes High risk Moderate risk Moderate risk Low risk How would you categorize the health risk for beginning an aerobic exercise program for the following individuals?
What physiological changes occur during a warm-up? • Muscles relax and contract faster • Increased temperature decreases viscous resistance in muscles and improves efficiency • Hemoglobin and myoglobin give up more oxygen and dissociate more rapidly • The rates of metabolic processes increase with temperature • Warm-up provides more time for aerobic metabolism to supply the energy needs of the activity and so may reduce lactate accumulation during actual exercise • Vascular resistance decreases with increasing temperature. • Total pulmonary resistance to blood flow decreases with increasing temperature
What are four reasons why warming up before exercise is important? • Provides more time for aerobic metabolism to supply the energy needs of the activity and so may reduce lactate accumulation during actual exercise • Reduces the risk of musculoskeletal injuries and improves heart function • Increases blood flow to muscles and the temperature of tendons and ligaments, decreasing the risk of muscle pulls and tears as well as damage to connective tissues • Gradually increases blood flow to the heart, avoiding the electrical abnormalities that can result from sudden vigorous activity
What constitutes an effective warm-up? Ideally the warm-up should involve low- to moderate-intensity exercise that mimics the physical activity to follow.
What are three benefits of cooling down with low- to moderate-intensity activity? • Helps to clear lactate from the blood more rapidly than an inactive cool-down • Prevents blood pooling in the lower extremities, which can cause dizziness • Helps maintain increased muscle and connective tissue temperature, increasing flexibility
According to CDC-ACSM recommendations, how much time should adults spend exercising to gain health-related benefits? Adults should accumulate 30 minutes or more of moderate-intensity activity on most, preferably all, days of the week.
Which is better: a single continuous exercise session each day or multiple shorter bouts of physical activity? Either way is fine as long as you accumulate 30 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise expending 150-200 kilocalories per day.
The ACSM considers four components for designing aerobic exercise programs for developing and maintaining cardiorespiratory fitness. What are they? • Mode of activity • Intensity of training • Duration of training • Frequency of training
What are the ACSM’s recommendations regarding mode of activity for developing and maintaining fitness? • Uses large muscle groups • Can be maintained continuously • Is rhythmical • Is aerobic
What are the two methods for estimating a target heart rate range? • Percentage of maximum heart rate • Percentage of maximum heart rate reserve
What is the recommended target heart range in terms of percentage of maximum heart rate? • 55 to 90% of maximum heart rate, depending on the person’s fitness level How is it calculated? • 220 – age in years = maximum heart rate
What is the recommended target heart rate range in terms of percentage of maximum heart rate reserve? • 40 to 85% of the maximum heart rate reserve How is it calculated? • 220 – age in years = maximum heart rate • Maximum heart rate – resting heart rate = maximum heart rate reserve
What two advantages does the percentage of heart rate reserve method have over the percentage of maximum heart rate method? • The percentage of heart rate reserve method more closely tracks the relationship between VO2 reserve and exercise intensity. • It takes into account training-induced changes in the resting heart rate.
What is the recommended VO2 range for improving cardiorespiratory fitness? • 40 to 85% of maximum VO2 reserve How is it calculated? • VO2max - VO2resting = maximum VO2 reserve
What is the recommended METsrange for improving cardiorespiratory fitness? • 20 to 30 years: • 4.8 to 10.1 METs • 40 to 64 years: • 4.0 to 8.4 METs
What is the recommended RPErange for improving cardiorespiratory fitness? 12 to 16 (somewhat hard to hard)
What is the advantage and disadvantage of using RPE to determine exercise intensity? • Advantage: • Method is simple • Disadvantage: • It’s subjective
What is the total daily duration of exercise necessary to improve cardiorespiratory fitness in healthy adults? 20 – 60 minutes
How frequently should a person train to improve cardiorespiratory fitness? 3 to 5 days a week
How quickly can detraining affect fitness? In as little as two weeks
What three physiological factors determine performance in endurance events? • Maximal oxygen consumption rate (VO2 max) • The fraction of VO2 max that can be maintained • Economy of movement
Name some factors that influence economy of movement. • Age • Muscle fiber type • Altitude • Gender • Fatigue • Temperature • Wind • Acceleration–deceleration versus smooth movement • Pace and efficiency • Velocity of running, walking, and cycling
What key points should you keep in mind when designing training programs for endurance athletes? • Coach and athlete must set goals and then determine the best training regimen based on those goals • Consider the athlete’s strengths and weaknesses when developing the program • Place early season emphasis on weaknesses and late season emphasis on strengths
What are three key elements of an effective training program? • Efficient long-range planning • Wise use of rest and recovery days • Gradual increases in training intensity and duration
Physical Activity and Health Executive Summary www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/sgr/sgr.htm Physical Activity and Fitness: Healthy People 2010 www.health.gov/healthypeople/default.htm Sports Coach—VO2 max www.brianmac.demon.co.uk/vo2max.htm Anaerobic Threshold www.rice.edu/~jenky/sports/anaerobic.threshold.html Gatorade Sports Science Institute www.gssiweb.com