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Chapter 10. Diagnosing Errors. Analyzing Skills. Practitioners must be able to analyze performance accurately and determine if an error exists, its cause, and how to fix it. May compare a learner’s technique to that of a highly skilled individual.
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Chapter 10 Diagnosing Errors
Analyzing Skills • Practitioners must be able to analyze performance accurately and determine if an error exists, its cause, and how to fix it. • May compare a learner’s technique to that of a highly skilled individual. • Need to understand the limitations of observation. • Should realize that some errors may result from problems related to motor learning and control and not from poor technique.
Limitations of Observations • Certain techniques may be inappropriate due to individual differences. • An observed flaw may have various underlying causes. • Errors are not always the result of poor technique.
Planning an Observation • Identify the skill’s purpose and key elements • Determine the viewing perspective • Decide on the number of observations • Consider capturing the performance on videotape
Determining the Cause of an Errorand Its Resolution • Errors due to constraints • Comprehension errors • Errors in selection • Execution errors • Sensory errors
Errors Due to Constraints • Developmental error • Equipment • Structure of the task or drill • Changes in the environment • Fear
Your Perspective • Have you ever been afraid to try to learn a new skill? How have you pushed past that fear? Or are you still afraid of that particular activity? • How would you help a roommate push past a fear? Your grandmother? A young child?
Comprehension Errors • When the learner does not understand the requirements of the skill or what is expected • When the learner is trying to correct or refine skills
Errors in Selection • Perceptual errors: • Does not know what cues to look for • Cannot distinguish between task-relevant and irrelevant stimuli • Focuses attention on the wrong cues • Decision-making errors: • Unable to identify and locate critical cues • Does not know the relationship between a specific cue and the appropriate response • Recall errors: • Forgets movements and strategies
Execution Errors • Errors in neuromuscular coordination: • Has not had enough practice time to establish proper coordination • Lacks necessary abilities or physical prerequisites to develop a high degree of proficiency • Speed–accuracy tradeoff: • May need to slow down or speed up a movement • Telegraphing: • Reveals intent to an opponent, thus giving the opponent the advantage
Sensory Errors • Visual errors: • Visual demands of a sport may exceed what is physically possible • Shadows • Improper vantage point or obstruction • Proprioception errors: • Proprioceptive deficits—from muscular pain or injury.
Should the Error Be Corrected? • Is the learner capable of making a correction? • How much time is needed? • Is the learner motivated?
Type of Correction Has an Impact on How Much Time Is Needed • Retry the skill • Refine the skill • Rebuild the motor program or pattern of coordination
Categories of Corrections Reprinted, with permission, from C.A. Coker, 2005, “Teaching tips for simplification,” Teaching Elementary Physical Education (16)6: 8-9.
Your Perspective • You are tossing a baseball in the backyard with your 7-year-old nephew and you spot an error with his throw. • What do you tell him? • How do you tell him? • How would this differ if it was your brother who had the error in throwing technique?