Chapter 10 Investment Companies
Types of Investment Companies • Open-end • Mutual fund • Price based on NAV • Closed-end • Stock publicly traded • Dual purpose investment company • two classes of shares • REITs and RELPs • Real estate applications (continued)
Types of Investment Companies (continued) • Unit investment trusts • Unmanaged • Self-liquidating • Largely consisting of short-term debt securities • Hedge funds • Typically organized as offshore limited partnerships for qualified investors • Maximum investment flexibility • Variable annuities • Mutual fund type of instrument originating at insurance companies
Net Asset Value (NAV) • Per-share market value of mutual fund’s portfolio: NAV = (total assets – total liabilities) number of shares outstanding
Fair-Value Pricing • Problem created by asynchronous closing of markets • SEC mandated solution • funds should use what they believe is the appropriate price of securities with stale prices, rather than the official close
Types of Mutual Funds • Common stock funds • Hybrid funds • Bond funds • Money market funds • Others
Common Stock Fund • Mutual fund that holds portfolio primarily consisting of common stocks and perhaps a small number of preferred stocks • Subcategories include investments in: • conservative (defensive) stocks • growth stocks • aggressive growth stocks • foreign stocks
Hybrid Fund • Mutual fund that owns portfolio of bonds, stocks, and other investment instruments. • Subcategories include • balanced funds • growth and income funds
Bond Fund • Mutual fund that owns portfolio of bonds. Subcategories include funds that invest in: • U.S. government issues • Municipal issues • Corporate issues • Low-quality (junk) bonds • Subcategories can be short-term (up to 5 years), intermediate-term (5 to 10 years), or long-term (10 or more years) bonds
Money Market Mutual Fund • Mutual fund that invests in short-term, highly liquid securities—that is, primarily or exclusively money market securities • Taxable • Tax-Exempt
Index Fund • Mutual fund that owns a portfolio of either common stock or bonds that replicates a major market index, such as the S&P 500 or Lehman Brothers Aggregate Bond Index • Index funds are low-cost funds that are especially useful in passive investment strategies in which the investor is satisfied to match performance of index.
Specialty Fund • Mutual fund designed for investors who seek special investment opportunities. • Examples include: • Sector or industry funds such as gold related stocks • Regional stocks such as sunbelt • Gimmick funds such as race car related stocks
International Funds • Mutual fund that specializes in investments outside the U.S. and helps investor to further diversify his or her portfolio • May specialize in • Specific countries • Regions such as Pacific Rim
Global Fund • Mutual fund that invests in U.S. and foreign markets • General philosophy: • We live in global economy and capital should flow toward regions that offer optimal risk-return combinations.
Asset Allocation Fund • Mutual fund that allows managers considerable flexibility in allocating portfolio among three major asset categories —stocks, bonds, and money market instruments—as market conditions change
Life-cycle Fund • Appeals to investors in specific stages of life • Retirement date funds • Two approaches • Specific securities • Fund of funds
Socially Responsible Fund • Mutual fund that invests only in corporations or other entities that maintain social and/or ethical principles consistent with those specified by fund. • Example: • Fund may elect not to invest in any company that produces tobacco products or other products associated with potential health hazards.
Forms of Return • Price Appreciation: Increase in NAV • Dividends and Interest: Pass-through of dividends and interest received on portfolio • Regular dividend • Capital Gain Distribution: Payment of net capital gain recognized by fund during year
Reinvestment Strategies • Reinvest regular & CG distribution • Makes most sense in a qualified account • Reinvest CG distribution & take regular as cash distribution • Concept of “not touching the principal” • Reinvest regular & take CG as cash • Rarely suggested • Same tax treatment on all
Family of Funds • Group of mutual funds owned and marketed by same company • Advantages: • Exchange privilege • Convenience of dealing with one company
Load • Selling fee applied to mutual fund purchase, similar to commission • Maximum load charge = 8.5% • Based on gross purchase price • $1,000 purchase means $915 invested if maximum load (continued)
Load (continued) • Many funds have breakpoints for load charges • Rights of accumulation • Letter of intent • Back-end load (contingent deferred sales charge)
Price of a Load Share PL = NAV/(1 – L) where PL = ask price including load L = load percentage
Operating Expenses • Investment advisory fee • 12b-1 fee • trail commission or trailer • Brokerage fees • Measured by portfolio turnover ratio • Other Fees • Examples: exchange fees, account maintenance fees, reinvestment loads
Switching • Money moved from one fund to another • Both inter- and intra- familty exchanges • If intra-family & paid load on initial purchase, waived on switch if second fund is also a load fund
Classes of Shares • Class A: Usually large front-end load, and minimal or no 12b-1 fee • Best if plan long holding period • Class B: Back-end load and 12b-1 fees, usually convertible to Class A after load waived • Class C: Minimal or no front-end or back-end load, but substantial 12b-1 fee • Best if plan short holding period
Distribution Systems • direct marketing • captive sales force • broker-dealers • financial planners
Advantages of Mutual Funds • Professional portfolio management • Diversification (risk reduction) • Convenience • Record keeping • Other factors • Examples: liquidity, minimal investment requirements, regulation
Disadvantages of Mutual Funds • Management fees, expenses, and loads for load funds reduce their returns. • Large investors, such as mutual funds, sometimes adversely affect the market when they trade. • Institutions usually restrict their analysis to a small percentage of traded stocks (i.e., the larger ones).
Prospectus • the fund’s investment objectives • the fund’s investment policies • general information about risks • tables showing the loads and other expenses • additional information
Governance • Like any other corporation • Inside director • Outside director • Funds where directors have more money invested do better!
Closed-End Companies • Trade in secondary market (exchanges or OTC) • No prospectur • Rarely trades at NAV • Usually at discount, but occasionally at premium • Embedded tax liabilities • Some of holdings may not be marketable • Conversion to open-end form • May produce windfall gains for investors • Sometimes have exit fees for those redeeming immediately after conversion
Managed Distribution Policy • A guaranteed cash distribution based on NAV at start of year • Provided even if have to return principal • Provides sense of safety because of guarantee of cash payout each year
Dual Purpose Investment Companies • Two classes of shares • Income share (like a preferred stock) • Capital Appreciation share • Termination date of fund • Portfolio liquidated • Income share paid off at par • Residual goes to capital appreciation shares
REITs, RELPs, & REMICs • Equity REIT: real estate investment trust that invests in office buildings, apartments, hotels, shopping malls, and other real estate ventures • Mortgage REIT: real estate investment trust that holds construction loans and/or mortgage loans (continued)
REITs, RELPs, & REMICs(continued) • Hybrid REIT: real estate investment trust that is combination of equity and mortgage investments • RELP: type of investment organized as limited partnership that invests directly in real estate properties • REMIC: Real estate mortgage investment conduits
Unit Investment Trusts (UITs) • Unmanaged, self-liquidating • Most UITs are debt (primarily short-term) but some are equity (may have liquidation date for portfolio) • Some UITs are equity • Liquidation date • Example: Dogs of the Dow portfolios
Advantages of UITs • Convenience • Low cost for holding diversified portfolio • Stable portfolio • Tax efficiency • No or minimal management fees
Disadvantages of UITs • May not find UIT to match investment goal • Front-end loads can be hefty • Lack of resale market
Exchange Traded Funds • Portfolio mimics a specified index • Creation units
ETFs: Advantages over Index Funds • Traded on daily basis like any other stock • Can buy on margin • Low management fees • Extremely tax efficient • Likely to track index more closely
Index Funds: Advantages over ETFs • Most are no-loads • ETFs trade on bid-ask spread, in addition to commission • Always trade at NAV, ETFs sometimes trade at a slight discount
Hedge Funds • Pooled portfolio instrument organized for maximum investment flexibility • Typically invest in derivatives, sell short, use leverage, and invest internationally • Take substantial risks, seeking correspondingly large rewards • Typically organized as limited partnerships and allow only “qualified investors” to participate
Variable Annuities • Purchased from insurance company • Account separate from assets of the insurance company • Can be variable during the accumulation period or the payout period • Considered securities under federal law • Assets accumulate on a tax-deferred basis
Alternative Ways of Organizing Pooled Portfolios • Operating or holding companies: Some operating or holding companies hold such large portfolios that their performances are more closely related to their security holdings than to their operations. • Partnerships: Some investment companies choose the partnership form, often a limited partnership, because of its greater flexibility and/or tax advantages. • Blind pools: Investors bankroll enterprises whose purposes will later be revealed; these pools are sometimes involved in takeover financing.
SMAs and PMAs • Separately managed accounts & privately managed accounts • An SMA is a PMAopened through a broker or financial advisor who uses pooled money to buy individual assets • About 80% of SMAs sold via major brokerage firms • A mutual fund with personalized holdings
Selecting a Mutual Fund • First step, identify appropriate category based on client’s objectives & risk tolerance • Third party evaluations • Fees & Expenses • Diversification/concentration • Experience, qualifications, and longevity of the fund’s manager
When to Sell a Fund • Style Drift • Significant change in asset allocation • Extended poor performance (esp. if associated with high fees) • Should look at least at 3-year record
Why Funds Underperform the Market • Hold a large part of the market & have a fee structure • Other institutional investors have the same advantages • Have some cash holdings due to cash inflows & outflows