CHAPTER 3 FACTORS AFFECTING MOTOR DEVELOPMENT Nancy Getchell, Hui-Min Lee, & Samuel Mackenzie Made by Wang Yan
§1.1 Understanding interacting factors • §1.2 A look at nature VS nurture • §1.3 Examining the influences of environment • §1.4 Examining the influences of experience • §1.5 Using interacting constraints in practical settings • §1.6 Conclusion
§1.1 Understanding interacting factors • Two simple notions • First,everything matters • Second, everything changes
Individual Functional Structural Task Environment Emerging and developing movements Physical Socio-cultural Goals Rules Equipment Newell’s model of constraints
§1.2 A look at nature VS nurture • Nature • the genetic effect • Support:research on twins • Nurture • A simple model Nervous System Environment Body
§1.3 Examining Influences of Environment • Feral Children (an extremely deprived environment ) The story of Kamala and Amala makes for an interesting example of just how powerful environmental influence can be on our motor development.
Programs for Enhanced Motor Development • Ideas changing environments enhance development • The Mozart Effect listening to Mozart's music the development of spatial intelligence ? • Suzuki method
§1.4 Examining The Influence of Experience • General Experience • Definition: General Experience which are non-goal directed, include movements such as arm flapping and spontaneous leg kicking. • Function: essential for the development of functional motor behaviors
Specific Experience • Definition: Specific experience refers to either an experience that is particular to a certain task (called task-specific) or one that occurs during a certain time period known as a critical period. • Function: improving the performances of motor skills already exist, and advance the emergence of novel motor behaviors by providing experiences.
Critical Periods • A critical period is a time period during which exposure to certain experiences (or environmental stimuli) is most likely to result in certain behaviors (Michel & Moore, 1999).
Characteristics • not absolutely • not very clera • broad periods
Active experience and Passive Experience • Active experience self-produced • Passive Experience not actively engaged in performing the action • Appropriate experience is important
§1.5 Using Interacting Constraints inPractical Settings • Body Scaling a study of grasping (Newell, Scully, Tenenbaum, & Hardiman, 1989). • Constraints-based Task Analyses (CTA) How to destine a CTA and use it?
§1.6 Conclusions • Many different factors or constraints affect motor development. • Neither our genetic makeup nor our environment fully shapes our motor development • Both exert their respective effects throughout multiple levels of organization that constitute the developing organism
Parse out the different roles of constraints and how they might influence developmental change. • Identify the task and environmental constraints most important to the individuals
Modify equipment, rules, goals, or physical dimensions in order to improve the motor performance and enhance developmental change over time