Download
overview of hiv aids in ethiopia n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Overview of HIV/AIDS in Ethiopia PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Overview of HIV/AIDS in Ethiopia

Overview of HIV/AIDS in Ethiopia

829 Vues Download Presentation
Télécharger la présentation

Overview of HIV/AIDS in Ethiopia

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Overview of HIV/AIDS in Ethiopia Unit 1 HIV Care and ART: A Course for Healthcare Providers

  2. Learning Objectives • Describe the national HIV/AIDS epidemiological profile • Describe the Ethiopian national AIDS strategies, guideline for implementation of ART, and roadmap to accelerate care and treatment for PLWHA • List the major achievements, challenges and opportunities during the implementation of the ART program in Ethiopia

  3. Learning Objectives (2) • Explain the Ethiopian National Policy on ARV drugs, supply and use • Convey the current status of the ART program in Ethiopia • List prevention strategies to reduce the spread of HIV infection in the country

  4. Global and Ethiopian Summary of HIV/AIDS Epidemic

  5. Global Summary of the AIDS Epidemic, December 2005 • PLWHA 40.3 million (36.7 – 45.3) • Adults 38.0 Million (34.5-42.6) • Women 17.5 Million (16.2-19.3) • Children <15 yrs 2.3 Million (2.1-2.8) • New infections 4.9 million (4.3–6.6) • Adults 4.2 Million (3.6-5.8) • Children <15 yrs 700,000 (630,000 – 820,000) • AIDS Deaths 3.1 million (2.8 – 3.6) • Adults 2.6 Million (2.3 – 2.9 million) • Children <15 yrs (570,000-670,000)

  6. Global Picture of HIV/AIDS Source: UNAIDS, 2006

  7. Est. Number Newly Infected With HIV During 2005: 4.9 Million Western Europe 21,000 Eastern Europe & Central Asia 210,000 North America 44,000 East Asia & Pacific 290,000 North Africa & Middle East 92,000 South & South-East Asia 890,000 Caribbean 53,000 Sub-Saharan Africa 3.1 million Latin America 240,000 Australia & New Zealand 5,000 Source: UNAIDS/WHO

  8. Est. Adult and Child Deaths From HIV/AIDS During 2005: 3.1 Million Western Europe 65,000 Eastern Europe & Central Asia 60,000 North America 16,000 North Africa & Middle East 28,000 East Asia & Pacific 51,000 Caribbean 36,000 South & South-East Asia 490,000 Sub-Saharan Africa 2.3 million Australia & New Zealand 700 Latin America 95,000 Source: UNAIDS/WHO

  9. Source: UNAIDS/WHO 2004

  10. Ethiopian Prevalence • National prevalence for 2003 ......... 4.4% • National Prevalence for 2005 ........... 4.7% • Women….5.0% • Men….3.8% • Urban prevalence in 2003...................12.6% • Urban prevalence in 2005...................12.5% • Rural prevalence in 2003 .................. .2.6% • Rural prevalence in 2005................... .3.0% • Addis Ababa prevalence in 2003 ........14.6% • Addis Ababa prevalence in 2005 ........14.5%

  11. HIV/AIDS Indicators in Ethiopia (2005) • Number of PLWHA 1.7 million • Estimated AIDS cases 143,129 • PLWHA requiring ARVs 286,258 • Annual AIDS deaths 134,124 • Adults and Children on ART 20,477

  12. HIV/AIDS Indicators in Ethiopia (2005) (2) • AIDS orphans 678,936 • Total orphans 4,801,219 • Children living with HIV/AIDS 111,903 • New HIV infections………39,886 • New AIDS cases…………29,359 • Annual AIDS deaths in children 28,693 • Children newly needing ART 58,718 • Children on ART 654

  13. Age & Sex Distribution of Reported AIDS Cases (1986 - June 2003, Ethiopia) Source: AIDS in Ethiopia, 5th ed., MOH, July, 2004

  14. Pregnant Women Testing HIV Positive: Urban, 2001 Source: Aids in Ethiopia, 4th ed., MOH, October 2002

  15. Pregnant Women Testing HIV Positive: Rural, 2001 Source: Aids in Ethiopia, 4th ed., MOH, October 2002

  16. HIV Prevalence Among Pregnant Women by Age, Urban 2001 Source: Aids in Ethiopia, 4th ed., MOH, October 2002

  17. Impact on Rural Households • Loss of income (50% or more) • Loss of labor • Loss of skilled manpower and knowledge • Loss of land • Loss of remittances • Reduction in savings and investment • Expenses for treatment, funeral, teskar • Need to sell livestock to meet expenses

  18. Impact on Industry • Loss of workers • Expenses for recruiting and training replacements • Reduced productivity in cases of skilled workers or managers • Lost work days due to sickness and funeral leave • Increased health care costs • 50% illness due to AIDS • Loss of skilled professionals

  19. HIV/AIDS Treatment in Ethiopia

  20. Historical Overview of HIV/AIDS in Ethiopia • 1984: The first evidence of HIV infection in Ethiopia • 1986: The first two AIDS cases reported to the Ministry of Health • 1989: HIV/AIDS surveillance started • March, 2005: Free ART program started • Currently, approximately: • 129 surveillance sites • 73 ART sites • 658 VCT sites

  21. VCT Site Distribution by Region, 2005

  22. ART Site Distribution by Region Total =73

  23. Regional Distribution of ART

  24. PMTCT Site Distribution, by Region Total site = 129

  25. National Response • HIV/AIDS Policy formulated by MOH and adopted by the Council of Ministers in 1998 • Enabled HIV/AIDS prevention and control • Supplemented existing health, women’s, and education and training policy • Called for a multisectoral response • Guaranteed rights of PLWHA • ARV Drugs Supply & Use Policy formulated July 2002

  26. National Response (2) • HIV/AIDS Prevention & Control Office (HAPCO) established June 2002 • Restructured from NACS (April 2000) • Sits under Prime Minister’s Office • Established at all levels of government • Runs the daily activities of NAC • Resource mobilization • Advocacy • Coordination of the sectoral responses

  27. National Response (3) • HIV/AIDS Strategic plan for five years • 2004 - 2008 • Social mobilization & community involvement • Community ownership • Scaled up ART program • AIDS fund was initiated • Free ART program was scaled up

  28. HIV/AIDS Intervention Strategies • Prevention • Social mobilization • IEC/BCC • HIV counseling and testing • Voluntary (VCT) • Provider initiated (PIHCT) • STI prevention and control • Condom promotion • Infection prevention • Prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) • Post exposure prophylaxis

  29. HIV/AIDS Intervention Strategies (2) • Care and Treatment • Palliative care • Community home based care • Opportunistic infection treatment • Tuberculosis treatment • Treatment of AIDS patients • Support for • Orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) • People living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA)

  30. Major Achievements • National HIV/AIDS Policy • National AIDS Council Secretariat • Five editions of “AIDS in Ethiopia” • National ARV Policy (revised and published in January 2005) • Roadmap to accelerate access to HIV/AIDS care and treatment • M&E framework

  31. Major Achievements (2) • Five-year strategic plan revised & updated • Used as main input for the National Strategic Framework adopted by NAC • Contains strategic outline of interventions at federal and regional levels • Key guidelines developed: • HIV Surveillance Guideline • HIV Surveillance Training Manual • Voluntary Counseling & Testing Guideline

  32. Major Achievements (3) • Key guidelines (continued): • AIDS Case Management Guideline • STI Management Guideline • Home-Based Care Guideline • Private HIV Labs Licensing Guideline • PMTCT Guideline • Home Care Training Manual • Counseling Training Manual • ARV Guideline • Universal Precautions & Post Exposure Prophylaxis

  33. Major Achievements (4) • 658 VCT sites established • 129 sentinel surveillance sites established • MOH has been the primary advocate for a multi-sectoral response to HIV/AIDS: • Formulated and disseminated HIV/AIDS and ARV Drugs Supply & Use Policies • Acts as a catalyst for several multi-sectoral HIV/AIDS committees that pre-dated the NAC

  34. Major Achievements (5) • Integrating HIV/AIDS into health programs: • Reproductive health • Mother and child health • Hospital hygiene • Health education • Integrated disease surveillance • TB/HIV Initiative

  35. Limitations • Synchronizing pharmacy & patients reports • Absence of laboratory reports • Inadequate Pre and ART registers • Employing ART coordinators and Data managers • Sending reports to RHBs and MOH • AIDS patients on waiting lists

  36. Policy of ARV Supply and Use in Ethiopia

  37. Introduction • Care and support of PLWHA plays an important role in preventing the spread of HIV/AIDS • ART is an important component of care for PLWHA • ARVs also have an important place in PMTCT and PEP • ARVs have enormous benefits, but affordability, toxicity, adherence and resistance are challenging

  38. National ARV Policy • Policy approved in July 2002 • Objectives of the policy: • Reduce MTCT • Prolong and improve the quality of lives of PLWHA • Reduce accidental HIV infection within health institutions

  39. General Policy • Determines type of ARVs that will be used in health care services • The Government of Ethiopia: • Coordinates & facilitates the supply of ARVs • Builds capacity for making available safe, effective and quality antiretroviral drugs, and for ensuring proper use of these drugs • Ensures sustainable supply of ARVs by encouraging involvement of all stakeholders

  40. General Policy (2) • The Government of Ethiopia (cont): • Nurtures international partnerships to strengthen sustainable supply and use of ARVs • Encourages research on modern and traditional HIV/AIDS treatment • Establishes strong systems to monitor ARV supply and use

  41. General Strategies • Selection of ARVs • Determine the type of ARVs to be used in Ethiopia • Incorporate selected ARVs into the national drug list • Permit the import of ARVs that are not included in the national drug list

  42. General Strategies (2) • Supply of ARVs • ARVs for ART: • Exempted from taxation • Supplied at reduced prices through government negotiation with manufacturers, importers and distributors • Purchased by a system of bulk and generic substitution • Local production of ARVs encouraged • Benefaction of ARVs facilitated by the Ethiopian Government • Ethiopian Government supplies ARVs for PMTCT

  43. General Strategies (3) • Drug Use • Prepare and implement standardized prescription paper • Prepare and implement national guidelines for safe and effective use of ARVs • Sustainable public education on ARV drugs

  44. General Strategies (4) • Research and Development • Government of Ethiopia encourages research on modern and traditional HIV/AIDS treatment • Government of Ethiopia shall make efforts to strengthen the capacity of research institutions • Rights and benefits of citizens that enroll in research studies shall be respected • National and international ethical norms and values in human experimentations shall be observed

  45. Scaling up ART Uptake • Need capacity development to: • Initiate treatment • Help patients adhere to their treatment regimens • Monitor the efficacy and toxicity of the regimens • Diagnose treatment failure • Monitor overall resistance in society • ART program must be implemented at Health Center level • Nursing initiative to prescribe ARVs is being piloted

  46. Key Points • AIDS is a global, regional, and national crisis • The national HIV seroprevalence rate in Ethiopia is 4.7% • Urban rate is 12.5% • Rate in Addis Ababa is 14.5% • Approximately 20,500 people in Ethiopia are currently receiving ART

  47. Key Points (2) • ARV guidelines have been written, policies have been adopted, and training is being conducted in Ethiopia • ARVs have enormous benefits and challenges. The challenges include: • Developing capacity to initiate treatment • Supporting adherence • Monitoring efficacy and toxicity • Diagnosing treatment failure • Monitoring resistance