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Communication

Communication

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Communication

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  1. Communication The exchange of ideas, information, etc. between two or more persons. In an act of communication there is usually at least a speaker or sender, a message which is transmitted, and a person or persons for whom this message is intended (the receiver).

  2. Communication The process that occurs when ideas, information and feelings are conveyed between individuals or groups of individuals for deliberate purposes. (Buguley 1994)

  3. Communication A process of transmitting and receiving verbal or non-verbal messages that produces a response (Murphy and Hildebrandt 1991)

  4. Components of the Communication Process Source/sender is the person who initiates the message Message is the information transmitted * verbal and non-verbal Channel is medium through which messages reaches the receiver (auditory, visual, etc) Receiver is the person to whom the message is targeted/addressed

  5. What are the factors influencing communication? The factors influencing communication are the individual’s perception of the environment; the cultural context of the interaction; the individual’s definition of acceptable space and distance, or personal space; and the amount of time available for the communication. These factors interact with the components of the communication process (sender, message, channel, and receiver).

  6. What are the modes of communication? The modes of communication are both verbal and nonverbal. Verbal communication includes messages sent with words / language. Verbal communication can be spoken or written. Nonverbal communication includes messages sent through body language, such as posture, gestures, touch, facial expressions, and physical appearance.

  7. Verbal /Nonverbal communication A great deal of information is exchanged through nonverbal channels Ex: a clenched jaw, narrowed eyes, or slumped posture can be interpreted as conveying anger, distrust, or disinterest. Steady eye contact, a tilted head, and a reassuring smile can demonstrate interest and empathy. 

  8. Body language • The human body signals identity (gender, race, ethnicity, age, occupation, social class, personality, and more ) • Space, gaze, and touch signal approach or avoidance • Facial expressions communicate emotions (consciouosly or unconciously) • Gesturesaccompany and substitute speech • Voice conveys the nonverbal elements of speech(pitch, speech rate, pronunciation, volume)

  9. Roman Jakobson’s model of verbal communication • In 1950 Roman Jakobson (Russian linguist ) introduced a theory concerning the purposes of the language used in human communication. • This model of communication functions consists of two layers of description: • the various elements of language use (factors/components of verbal communication) • what humans do with the language when they use it (functions of verbal communication).

  10. Jakobson’s Language FunctionsFactors Functions • Sender • Receiver • Message • Context • Channel • Code

  11. Examples • I’m terribly sorry to interrupt, but if you would be so kind as to lower your voices a little. (emotive / expressive function focus on the sender) From Introduction to Textual Analysis, Lone Albrecht English Dept. ASB From Introduction to Textual Analysis, Lone Albrecht English Dept. ASB http://www.sprog.asb.dk/la/

  12. Will you belt up! • (conative / directive function  focus on the receiver)

  13. It was a burning hot day; the air was stifling; one could hardly breathe even near the sea. • (informative / referential funtion  focus on the content)

  14. It was a beautiful warm day; the air was like velvet; the sea air was invigorating. • (poetic function  focus on the message)

  15. Nice weather today! • (phatic funtion  focus on the contact/channel)

  16. Model for textual analysis • 1. Informative/referential function • Focus on content: explanation, definition, description From Introduction to Textual Analysis, Lone Albrecht English Dept. ASB From Introduction to Textual Analysis, Lone Albrecht English Dept. ASB http://www.sprog.asb.dk/la/

  17. Expressive / emotive function • Focus on sender’s attitude to topic: positive, negative, ironical, sentimental etc. • Focus on sender’s attitude to receiver: equal, authority, personal, impersonal, solidarity etc. • As reflected in choice of words, sentence structure etc. From Introduction to Textual Analysis, Lone Albrecht English Dept. ASB From Introduction to Textual Analysis, Lone Albrecht English Dept. ASB http://www.sprog.asb.dk/la/

  18. Directive /conative function • Focus on receiver: • Explicit – order, request, demand, warning, advice etc. • Implicit – through expressive means changing people’s mind From Introduction to Textual Analysis, Lone Albrecht English Dept. ASB From Introduction to Textual Analysis, Lone Albrecht English Dept. ASB http://www.sprog.asb.dk/la/

  19. Phatic function • Focus on the ’channel’ between sender and receiver for the purpose of inviting or maintaining communication • Reflected in use of pronouns, rhetorical expressions From Introduction to Textual Analysis, Lone Albrecht English Dept. ASB From Introduction to Textual Analysis, Lone Albrecht English Dept. ASB http://www.sprog.asb.dk/la/

  20. Poetic function • Focus on the form of the message • Reflected in: imagery such as metaphor, simile, puns, allegory, assonance, etc. From Introduction to Textual Analysis, Lone Albrecht English Dept. ASB From Introduction to Textual Analysis, Lone Albrecht English Dept. ASB http://www.sprog.asb.dk/la/

  21. Metalingual function • Focus on language itself (the code). Language turned back on itself, language about language: • Reflected in terminology of linguistics: adjective, pronoun, sentence, etc. – and questions like ’What do you mean when you say…..?’ From Introduction to Textual Analysis, Lone Albrecht English Dept. ASB http://www.sprog.asb.dk/la/

  22. Links: Roman Jakobson: http://www.press.jhu.edu/books/hopkins_guide_to_literary_theory/roman_jakobson.html