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## Elaboration and Direct Relationships

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**Creating the Crosstabulated Table - 1**In SPSS, you can obtain a crosstabulated table by clicking: Analyze > Descriptive Statistics > Crosstabs In other words, first, click on Analyze in the menu bar of SPSS, then find and click on Descriptive Statistics on a pop-down submenu. Again, find and click on Crosstabs on another pop-down submenu. Then, you will see a window shown in the next slide.**Creating the Crosstabulated Table - 2**Move the variable [owngun] to the “Rows(s):” list box. Move the variable [conserv] to the “Columns(s):” list box. Click on “Cells…” button on the bottom.**Creating the Crosstabulated Table - 3**Mark the Column check box in the Percentages panel. Click on the Continue button to close the dialog box.**Creating the Crosstabulated Table - 4**Click on the OK button to produce the output.**The Bivariate Table**There is a relationship in the bivariate table if the absolute value of the difference in column percentages on one of the rows is 10% or greater. In this example, the difference is 57.6% - 73.1% = -15.5%. There is a relationship.**Adding the control variable to the analysis - 1**To add the control variable to the analysis, click on the Dialog Recall tool button and select the Crosstabs command from the pop-up menu.**Adding the control variable to the analysis - 2**To add the control variable to the analysis, move the [sex] variable to the list box in the Layer panel. Click on the OK button to produce the output.**The Partial Tables in the Crosstabulated Output**The partial table for the first value or condition of the control variable (sex = male) is in the top half of the three-way crosstabs table. The partial table for the second value or condition of the control variable (sex = female) is in the bottom half of the three-way crosstabs table.**The First Partial Table**There is a relationship in the first partial table if the absolute value of the difference in column percentages is 10% or greater for the same row we compared in the bivariate table. In this example, the difference is 55.2% - 71.2% = -16.0%. There is a relationship in the first partial table.**The Second Partial Table**There is a relationship in the second partial table if the absolute value of the difference in column percentages is 10% or greater for the same row we compared in the bivariate table. In this example, the difference is 60.0% - 74.6% = -14.6%. There is a relationship in the second partial table.**Differences in Column Percentages - 1**To compare column percentages, we compute the difference between the lower left-hand cell in the partial tables and the bivariate table The percentage in both the first partial table (71.2%) and the second partial table (74.6%) are LESS than 5% different from the bivariate table (73.1%).**Differences in Column Percentages - 2**To compare column percentages, we compute the difference between the lower right-hand cell in the partial tables and the bivariate table The percentage in both the first partial table (55.2%) and the second partial table (60.0%) are LESS than 5% different from the bivariate table (57.6%).**Elaboration of Bivariate Tables:A Direct Relationship**With the information about the relationships in the partial tables and differences in column percentages, we can answer the question.**Elaboration of Bivariate Tables:Detecting a Spurious**Relationship**Creating the Crosstabulated Table - 1**In SPSS, you can obtain a crosstabulated table by clicking: Analyze > Descriptive Statistics > Crosstabs In other words, first, click on Analyze in the menu bar of SPSS, then find and click on Descriptive Statistics on a pop-down submenu. Again, find and click on Crosstabs on another pop-down submenu. Then, you will see a window shown in the next slide.**Creating the Crosstabulated Table - 2**Move the variable [prayer] to the “Rows(s):” list box. Move the variable [minorty] to the “Columns(s):” list box. Click on “Cells…” button on the bottom.**Creating the Crosstabulated Table - 3**Mark the Column check box in the Percentages panel. Click on the Continue button to close the dialog box.**Creating the Crosstabulated Table - 4**Click on the OK button to produce the output.**The Bivariate Table**There is a relationship in the bivariate table if the absolute value of the difference in column percentages on one of the rows is 10% or greater. In this example, the difference is 24.0% - 38.5% = -14.5%. There is a relationship.**Adding the control variable to the analysis - 1**To add the control variable to the analysis, click on the Dialog Recall tool button and select the Crosstabs command from the pop-up menu.**Adding the control variable to the analysis - 2**To add the control variable to the analysis, move the [fundamen] variable to the list box in the Layer panel. Click on the OK button to produce the output.**The Partial Tables in the Crosstabulated Output**The partial table for the first value or condition of the control variable (religious orientation = not fundamentalist) is in the top half of the three-way crosstabs table. The partial table for the second value or condition of the control variable (religious orientation = fundamentalist) is in the bottom half of the three-way crosstabs table.**The First Partial Table**There is not a relationship in the first partial table since the difference of 42.9% - 41.0% = 1.9% is less than 10%.**The Second Partial Table**There is not a relationship in the second partial table since the difference of 21.4% - 25.9% = -4.5% is less than 10%.**Elaboration of Bivariate Tables:Detecting a Spurious**Relationship With the information about the relationships in the partial tables and the bivariate table, we can answer the question.**Elaboration of Bivariate Tables:Detecting a Conditional**Relationship**Creating the Crosstabulated Table - 1**In SPSS, you can obtain a crosstabulated table by clicking: Analyze > Descriptive Statistics > Crosstabs In other words, first, click on Analyze in the menu bar of SPSS, then find and click on Descriptive Statistics on a pop-down submenu. Again, find and click on Crosstabs on another pop-down submenu. Then, you will see a window shown in the next slide.**Creating the Crosstabulated Table - 2**Move the variable [absingle] to the “Rows(s):” list box. Move the variable [fundamen] to the “Columns(s):” list box. Click on “Cells…” button on the bottom.**Creating the Crosstabulated Table - 3**Mark the Column check box in the Percentages panel. Click on the Continue button to close the dialog box.**Creating the Crosstabulated Table - 4**Click on the OK button to produce the output.**The Bivariate Table**There is a relationship in the bivariate table if the absolute value of the difference in column percentages on one of the rows is 10% or greater. In this example, the difference is 40.8 - 51.2% = -10.4%.There is a relationship.**Adding the control variable to the analysis - 1**To add the control variable to the analysis, click on the Dialog Recall tool button and select the Crosstabs command from the pop-up menu.**Adding the control variable to the analysis - 2**To add the control variable to the analysis, move the [conserv] variable to the list box in the Layer panel. Click on the OK button to produce the output.**The Partial Tables in the Crosstabulated Output**The partial table for the first value or condition of the control variable (political orientation = not conservative) is in the top half of the three-way crosstabs table. The partial table for the second value or condition of the control variable (political orientation = conservative) is in the bottom half of the three-way crosstabs table.**Differences in Column Percentages - 1**To compare column percentages, we compute the difference between the lower left-hand cell in the partial tables and the bivariate table Comparing percentages in the lower left-hand cell of the tables, the percentage in both the first partial table (57.1%) and the second partial table (36.4%) are MORE than 5% different from the bivariate table (51.2%).**Differences in Column Percentages - 2**To compare column percentages, we compute the difference between the lower left-hand cell in the partial tables and the bivariate table Comparing percentages in the lower right-hand cell of the tables, the percentage in both the first partial table (65.2%) and the second partial table (17.4%) are MORE than 5% different from the bivariate table (40.8%).**Elaboration of Bivariate Tables:Detecting a Conditional**Relationship With the information about the percentage differences in the partial tables and the bivariate table, we can answer the question.**Steps in solving elaboration problems - 1**Question: elaboration of bivariate table reinforces the finding of a relationship (a direct relationship)? Is there a relationship between independent and dependent variables? No False Yes Are there relationships in both partial tables? No False Yes Are the differences in percentages less than 5%? No False Yes True**Steps in solving elaboration problems - 2**Question: elaboration of bivariate table negates the finding of a relationship (a spurious or intervening relationship)? Is there a relationship between independent and dependent variables? No False Yes Are there relationships in both partial tables? No False Yes True**Steps in solving elaboration problems - 3**Question: elaboration of bivariate table alters the interpretation of a relationship (a conditional relationship)? Is there a relationship between independent and dependent variables? No False Yes Are the differences in percentages 5% or more? No False Yes True