6 Lesson Plans
Knowledge Objectives (1 of 2) • Identify and describe the components of learning objectives. • Identify and describe the parts of a lesson plan. • Describe the four-step method of instruction. • Describe the instructional preparation process.
Knowledge Objectives (2 of 2) • Describe the lesson plan adaptation process for the Fire Service Instructor I. • Describe how a Fire Service Instructor II creates a lesson plan. • Describe how a Fire Service Instructor II modifies a lesson plan.
Skills Objectives (1 of 2) • Utilize the four-step method of instruction. • Review a lesson plan and identify the adaptations needed. • Create a lesson plan that includes learning objectives, a lesson outline, instructional materials, instructional aids, and an evaluation plan.
Skills Objectives (2 of 2) • Adapt a lesson plan so that it both meets the needs of the students and ensures that learning objectives are met. • Modify a lesson plan so that it both meets the needs of the students and ensures that all learning objectives are met.
Introduction (1 of 2) • Instructors spend hours planning and preparing for a class. • Many details to address: • How much time will the class take? • How many students will attend? • What must students know? • What equipment will be needed? • In what order will the material be presented?
Introduction (2 of 2) • All information compiled into lesson plan • Detailed guide used by instructor for preparing and delivering instruction • Well-prepared, thorough lesson plan increases quality of student learning • Instructor I uses a lesson plan that is already developed. • Instructor II may develop own lesson plan
Why Use a Lesson Plan? • Lesson plans are important! • Instruction without a lesson plan is like driving in a foreign country without a map. • Goal is to reach destination • Learning objectives are destination • Without lesson plan with learning objectives, you may not even know what the destination is
Lesson Plans and Consistency • When a class is taught multiple times by different instructors, a lesson plan ensures that all students receive the same information. • Lesson plan documents what was taught • A new instructor can use an existing lesson plan to achieve the same learning objectives.
Learning Objectives • Begin planning by identifying desired outcomes or objectives. • Defined as a goal achieved by attaining a skill, knowledge, or both, and that can be observed or measured. • Sometimes called performance outcomes or behavioral outcomes • If students achieve learning objectives, they achieve desired outcome of class
Components of Learning Objectives • Many methods for writing learning objectives • ABCD method is common • Audience (Who?) • Behavior (What?) • Condition (How?) • Degree (How much?)
Audience • Describes who the students are • Fire service learning objectives often use specific terms • Fire fighter trainee • Cadet • Fire officer • Students
Behavior • Must be observable, measurable action • Don’t use words such as “know” or “understand” for the behavior. • Use words for actions you can see and measure • State • Describe • Identify
Condition • Describes situation in which student will perform behavior • Specific equipment or resources given to the student • Personal protective clothing or safety items required when performing behavior • Physical location or circumstances for performing behavior
Degree • With what percentage of completion is the student expected to perform behavior? • Total mastery would be 100% completion. • Many times objectives are expected to be learned to passing rate for written exams (70–80%). • Can also use time limit
Using the ABCD Method (1 of 2) • Objectives do not need to contain all ABCD parts. • Often shortened because one or more elements assumed to be known • Audience/condition • May be listed once, at the top of all the objectives, or not listed at all
Using the ABCD Method (2 of 2) • Degree • Commonly omitted • Assumption that degree will be determined by testing method • Shorten method only when clearly stated elsewhere in lesson plan • Never omit behavior component
Parts of a Lesson Plan • Many different styles/formats • Lesson plan should always include certain components. • Required for understanding • Necessary to follow lesson plan
Lesson Title or Topic • Describes what lesson plan is about • Should help determine whether lesson plan contains information about topic you are planning to teach
Level of Instruction (1 of 2) • Students must be able to understand instructional material. • Ensure plan written at appropriate level for students • Level often corresponds with NFPA standards • May be indicated by labels such as “beginner,” “intermediate,” or “advanced”
Level of Instruction (2 of 2) • Also identifies any prerequisites • A prerequisite is a condition that must be met before the student is permitted to receive further instruction. • Another class • Certification • Rank
Objectives and Outcomes • Backbone of lesson plan • All lesson plans must have learning objectives • Many methods for determining and listing learning objectives • Instructor must understand learning objectives before presenting to students.
Instructional Materials Needed • Most lesson plans require some type of instructional materials. • Designed to help present lesson plan to students • Audiovisual aids • Handouts, pictures, diagrams, models • Additional supplies
Lesson Outline • Main body of the lesson plan
References/Resources • Lesson plans often contain only an outline of information. • Instructors may not be expert in topic • Instructors may need additional references or resources. • May contain names of books, Web sites, or experts • Verify validity of lesson plan
Lesson Summary • Summarizes the lesson plan • Reviews and reinforces main points
Assignment • Lesson plans often contain an assignment. • Homework-type exercise • Allows student to explore or apply material • Be prepared to explain: • Assignment and due date • Method for submission • Grading criteria
Four-Step Method of Instruction • Method of instruction most commonly used in fire service • Preparation • Presentation • Application • Evaluation
Preparation Step (1 of 2) • Also called motivation step • Prepares or motivates students to learn • Provides information that explains why students will benefit from class • Explain thoroughly. • Lesson plan should contain rationale
Preparation Step (2 of 2) • Fire Service Instructor I • Gains students’ attention • Prepares students to learn • Fire Service Instructor II • Develops lesson plan • Includes preparation points • Safety- and survival-related information • Examples, explanations of how material will help students do job
Presentation Step • Actual presentation of lesson plan • Lecture, lead discussions, use audiovisual aids, answer student questions • Lesson plan contains outline of information to be presented • Notes indicate use of teaching aids, when to take breaks, or where to get more information
Application Step (1 of 2) • Students apply new knowledge • Practice skills. • Make mistakes. • Retry skills as necessary. • Instructors • Provide direction and support. • Ensure that safety rules are followed.
Application Step (2 of 2) • Lesson plan lists activities or assignments students perform • Fire service often requires skill sheets for evaluation • Use step to make sure students progress along with lesson plan • Allows students to actively participate and remain engaged
Evaluation Step • Ensures students correctly acquired knowledge and skills • May be written test or skill performance test • Student must demonstrate competency without assistance • Lesson plan indicates evaluation method and procedures for performing evaluation
Instructional Preparation • Once you have a lesson plan, the instructional preparation begins. • Many questions must be answered. • Use the information contained in the lesson plan as a guide.
Organizational Skills • Organize class planning timeline. • Identify time available to plan and prepare. • Usually from when lesson plan is identified until day class is scheduled • Identify milestones to accomplish. • Obtain equipment or materials. • Reserve classroom. • Preview audiovisual aids.
Procuring Materials and Equipment • Methods for obtaining materials and equipment differ. • Instructor may need to • Contact the person responsible for purchasing training materials. • Use an equipment checkout process.
Preparing for Instruction Delivery (1 of 2) • Most important part of instructional preparation is preparing for actual delivery of lesson plan • Be familiar with information in lesson plan • If necessary, consult references and research topic further • Practice using any technology.
Preparing for Instruction Delivery (2 of 2) • Always rehearse presentation • Should not see material for the first time during class • Understand information being delivered. • Adapt to particular needs of class
Adapting a Lesson Plan • Important distinction between a Fire Service Instructor I and a Fire Service Instructor II • Fire Service Instructor II can modify a lesson plan • Lesson plans rarely implemented exactly as written.
NFPA Job Performance Requirements (JPRs) for aFire Service Instructor I (1 of 2) • 4.3.2 Review instructional materials, given the materials for a specific topic, target audience and learning environment, so that elements of the lesson plan, learning environment, and resources that need adaptation are identified.
NFPA JPRs for aFire Service Instructor I (2 of 2) • 4.3.3 Adapt a prepared lesson plan, given course materials and an assignment, so that the needs of the student and the objectives of the lesson plan are achieved.
Fire Service Instructor I (1 of 2) • Before class • Evaluate conditions. • Evaluate facilities for appropriateness. • Meet SOPs. • Evaluate students’ limitations.
Fire Service Instructor I (2 of 2) • Modifies method of instruction and course materials to meet student needs • Makes adaptations due to: • Learning environment • Audience • Capability of facilities • Types of equipment available
Fire Service Instructor II • 5.3.3 Modify an existing lesson plan, given a topic, audience characteristics, and a lesson plan, so that the JPRs for the topic are achieved, and the plan includes learning objectives, a lesson outline, course materials, instructional aids, and an evaluation plan.
Adapt Vs. Modify • Modify • To make basic or fundamental changes • Adapt • To make fit (as for a specific or new use or situation)
Making Basic Changes to a Lesson Plan • Fire Service Instructor II can make basic, fundamental changes. • Changing performance outcomes • Rewriting learning objectives • Modifying lesson content • Fire Service Instructor I cannot make these changes.
What Can an Instructor I Do? • Make lesson plan fit situation and conditions • NFPA states that an Instructor I may modify method of instruction and course materials • To meet the needs of the student • To accommodate the instructor’s style
Level of Training • Instructor must only perform actions within level of training • Instructor I must recognize what can and cannot do • Acting outside training may lead to liability. • Check with superiors if unsure