Credibility Who and what can one trust? Is it fact or reliable information?
What is Credible? • Claims-are they suspicious in themselves (inherently)? • “The moon is made of green cheese.” • “There is a pink elephant coming in the door.”
Credible sources? • Observations?- when, who, why? • “The robber was young and 6 feet tall.” 4’ 3” lady of 81 years. • “The robber was old and small.”- young 6’ 5” body builder.
Credible source? • Experts “Dr. Hart, a surgeon, says this economic solution is bogus.” “ My horoscope tells me that the world will come to an end tomorrow.”
How do we know? • Is a claim credible? • Conflicts with what is known. • Conflicts with own observations. • Is likely a joke or exaggeration or downplay.
Eye Witnesses • Conditions of observation? • Conditions of observer? • Assumptions of observer?
Credible Expert? • Has proper credentials. • Field has agreement. • Experts disagree-”insanity decisions.” • Expertise is relevant to the area– forensic.
Circumstantial Evidence • “Evidence does not bear directly on the fact in dispute but on various attendant circumstances from which the judge or jury might infer the occurrence of the fact in dispute.”
Problems to note. • Assume normal circumstances-this out of ordinary- “running late at night.” • Indirect inference always only probable. • Can be manipulated- “I was framed!!”
Critical & Cautious • Be critical and check claims. • Innocent until proven guilty.
Bandwagon, Appeal to People • Accept this conclusion because many people (my peers) (my kind of people) accept it. • “Millions of Americans are switching to Hotsun, so should you!”