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  1. BELLRINGER • Bell Ringer: • Take out your homework, page 5 in workbook • Take out your note sheet. • Review continents and oceans for the quiz tomorrow • CHAMPS • C: Voice Level-0 • H: Raise your hand for help. • A: Complete the bell ringer, using complete sentences. • M: Stay seated. • P: Sit up straight, stay focused, do not disturb your classmates. • S: SUCCESS!

  2. Geographer’s Tools

  3. The Geographer’s Tools • Maps and Globes: • As people explored the Earth, they collected information about it. • Mapmakers wanted to present this information correctly. • The best way was to put it on a globe

  4. Maps and Globes • But because globes are not practical or easy to use or to carry, flat maps were invented. • However, the earth is round and a map is flat. • Mapmakers had to find ways to make maps accurate.

  5. Globes and Maps Globes - Advantages • A globe - round ball like the Earth itself. • A globe is the most accurate way to present information about the Earth • The only difference between a globe and the Earth itself is the scale

  6. Globes - Disadvantages • They cannot be large enough to show detail while being small enough to carry • They are not portable

  7. Maps have advantages • They can show more detail • They can be folded making them more portable • You can look at more information all at once

  8. Maps have Disadvantages • Maps try to show the Earth, which is round, on a flat surface. • This causes distortion, or a loss of accuracy of the shapes and distances of places. • It is impossible to show the Earth on a flat surface without some distortion.

  9. The Parts of a Map Title What the map is about Compass Rose A compass rose is a model of a compass. It tells the cardinal directions. Scale The scale on a map tells you the relative distance on the map to the real world. For example, a map’s scale may tell you that one inch on the map equals one mile in the real world.

  10. Key • The key, or legend, on a map explains what the symbols and colors on a map represent Grids • System of latitude and longitude that helps you find location

  11. Getting It All On the Map • In 1569, a geographer named Gerardus Mercator created a flat map to help sailors navigate long journeys across the globe. • The Mercator projection, or method of putting a map of the Earth onto a flat piece of paper, is used by nearly all deep-sea navigators. • The Mercator projection is a conformal map, meaning that it shows correct shapes, but not true distances or sizes. • There are many types of other projections of the globe.

  12. Getting It All on the Map • Today, geographers collect information from many different sources to add details to maps and make them more accurate • Three major sources of information are ground surveys, aerial photography, and satellite images

  13. Interrupted Projection Peters Projection Equal-Area Projection The World: Three Projections There are many ways to show a globe on a flat map. The interrupted projection map, on the left, shows real sizes and shapes of continents. The equal area map , below left, shows size accurately. The Peters projection, below, shows land and oceans areas and correct directions accurately

  14. The World: A Robinson Projection

  15. How Latitude and Longitude Form the Global Grid

  16. The Hemispheres Hemisphere – Half of the Earth

  17. The Hemispheres

  18. In-Class Assignments Task 1 • Answer the following questions on your own paper • What do geographers study? • Based on the diagrams of the hemispheres in the presentation or textbook, in which two hemispheres do you live? Task 2 • Use each of the following words in a sentence without using the definition: Geography Cardinal Direction Sphere Longitude Latitude