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Bellringer

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Bellringer

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  1. Bellringer Complete a point of view analysis of:

  2. 1950s Presidents

  3. Compare and contrast Truman and Eisenhower’s policies. • Domestic policy • Foreign policy • Examples: China/Taiwan, Iran

  4. Truman

  5. Elections • 1948 – Truman v. Dewey v. Thurmond • Truman-- Whistlestop campaign – country wide train campaign against “do nothing congress” • Thurmond – Dixiecrat (anti-civil rights, pro states’rights) • Thomas Dewey – Republican (gov. of NY)

  6. Fair Deal • Min. Wage • Soc. Sec. • Clear Slums • Low Income Homes • TVA • But lost on… • Civil Rights • Nat’l Health Ins. • Repeal of Tariff • Fed aid to Education • Farm Incomes

  7. Containment • Stalin installed communist governments in countries of Eastern Europe • Satellite nations – countries dominated by the USSR • War was inevitable? • US moves to contain the Soviet threat • George Kennan proposed policy of containment • Prevent the extension of communism to other countries

  8. Cold War • US v. USSR –neither nation confronted the other on the battlefield • Dominated global affairs from 1945-1991 • Truman Doctrine • The US will “support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures” • US spends $400 million in aid to Greece and Turkey • Prevent communist take over • National Security Act – 1947 • Set up Dept of Defense, CIA (keep draft)

  9. National Defense Budget [1940-1964]

  10. Marshall Plan • Sec. of State George Marshall • US provides aid to all European nations that needed it • Revived European hopes • 16 countries received $13 billion in aid • Communist party lost its appeal to voters in Western Europe

  11. Germany? • Issue of German reunification • Germany was divided into four zones after WW2 • US, UK, and France combined their zones in 1948 • USSR held East Germany • City of Berlin was split into the two zones • Western Berlin was occupied by Allies, but surrounded by Soviet territory • Stalin closed off routes into West Berlin

  12. Berlin Airlift • No fuel or food could reach W. Berlin • US and UK flew food and supplies to Berlin • W. Berlin survived • USSR lifted blockade and US prestige was raised

  13. NATO • 12 nations signed the North Atlantic Treaty Organization • Pledged military support • First time US entered a military alliance during peacetime • NO isolationism for US! • Soviets respond with Warsaw Pact

  14. Eisenhower

  15. Elections • 1952 - Eisenhower (R) v. Stevenson (D) • Eisenhower – middle of the road approach • Pledged to personally go to Korea to end war • Nixon’s checker’s speech

  16. Eisenhower • TV – commercialized campaign • Modern Republicanism – middle road • Conservative with money • Liberal with people • Raised minimum wage, extended Soc. Sec., public housing, etc.

  17. Nuclear Arms Race • Began during Truman’s Presidency • Soviets exploded atomic bomb in 1949 • US entered into race for Hydrogen Bomb • Even more destructive – immoral? • US explodes H-Bomb in 1952 • Soviets exploded H-Bomb 1953

  18. Brinkmanship • John Foster Dulles – Ike’s Secretary of State • ANTI-COMMUNIST • A moral crusade against communism • Brinkmanship – willingness to go to the edge of all-out war • US trimmed army and navy to focus on its air force • Built up nuclear weapons

  19. Cold War Spreads • CIA (Central Intelligence Agency) • Collected information – spies • Covert operations • Iran • Prime Minister Mossadegh nationalized oil fields • CIA helped the Shah of Iran return to power • Turned oil fields back over to Western companies • Guatemala • CIA took covert action to change the govt.

  20. Cold War Spreads • Geneva Summit • “open skies proposal” – allow flights • Soviets reject it, but it’s a step towards peace • Suez War • Nasser looking for aid for dam on Nile • Asked US/Britain, then USSR • US withdraws offer • Nasser nationalized the Suez Canal • Israel, Britain, and France sent troops • UN defused situation

  21. Eisenhower Doctrine • Eisenhower’s Warning • US would defend the Middle East against communist attack

  22. Hungarian Uprising • Soviets had dominated Hungary • Hungarians revolted in 1956 – Democracy! • Soviets brutally responded and put down rebellion • US did nothing – Hungary was a satellite