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Mission-Based Approach

Mission-Based Approach

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Mission-Based Approach

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  1. Mission-Based Approach • Needed a context for sensors, power and propulsion to use for examining future capabilities • Aid to answering question: where are the technology gaps? • Make use of previously developed conceptualized missions (SSMF workshop), developed by science community, to provide the context • Sampling of missions to generate discussion only • Warning: these missions are not designed to meet specifically derived scientific objectives • System engineering approach not used in defining these missions • Lack of specific information may make task seem unconstrained • Assumptions and inferences on sensors and power and propulsion attendees will be required • This is OK!!! Just document assumptions and inferences • Keep the discussion flowing!

  2. Mission Characteristics • Six Mission descriptions provided: • Hurricane Genesis, Evolution, and Landfall • Cloud, Aerosol, Water Vapor, and Total Water Measurements • Active Fire, Emissions, and Plume Assessment • Southern Ocean Carbon Cycle • Antarctic Explorer (Cyrosphere) • Vegetation Structure, Composition, and Canopy Chemistry • Potential platform class(es) to assign to a mission • Daughter ship UAV (launched from mother ship) • Small UAV (~20 lbs payload) • Medium UAV • Large UAV (~2000 lbs payload) • Very Long Endurance UAV (3 days +) • Assumptions across all missions • For sensor track: Platform is capable of performing the mission as described in the profile • OTH network centric communications • ‘File and fly’ access to airspace • ‘Plug and Play’ open architecture • Capable of 100% nominal autonomous sensor operation

  3. Hurricane Genesis, Evolution and Landfall • Science objective: Observation of hurricanes to improve predictions of hurricane paths and landfall. • Remote, high altitude measurements: • Tropospheric measurements: • Boundary Layer: • Precipitation • Clouds • Meteorological sounding • Electrical activity • Microphysics • Dust • 4-D thermodynamics • Winds • Sea surface temperature • Surface winds • Surface imaging • Turbulent flux • Surface state: wave spectra, sea spume, etc

  4. Hurricane Genesis, Evolution and Landfall • High altitude, Mother Ship UAV: Very Long Endurance Platform • Tropospheric UAV: Daughter Platform • Boundary layer UAV: Small Platform • Optical Imager: lightning • Meteorological sonde • Daughter ships • Radar: cloud and precipitation • GPS reflectance: surface wave spectra • Lidar: surface wave spectra • Sounder: water vapor and temperature • Radiometer: cloud and precipitation • Microphysics (typical of drop-sondes, thermodynamics) • Infrared pyrometer: SST • Winds • Optical imager: surface imaging • Meteorological sonde: in-situ • XRBT thermocline • Turbulence flux

  5. Hurricane

  6. Hurricane Genesis, Evolution and Landfall • Key mission characteristics: • High Altitude, Long Endurance • Remote mother platform: 65K ft / 2-3 weeks • Daughter ships => deploy/retrieve • Formation (coordinated) flight • Multi-ship operation • Quick turn-around • Re-tasking mission during flight • Satellite data • Remote, mother platform observations • Scientist • Payload directed flight • Terrain avoidance • boundary layer platform

  7. Cloud, Aerosol, Water Vapor, and Total Water Measurements • Science objective: study transformations of aerosols and gases in following cloud systems • Convective systems • Sea breeze cloud formation • Marine stratiform • Contrails in the Central U.S. in air traffic regions • Synoptic scale systems & Fronts • Cirrus outflow • Measurement • Water vapor, total water, water isotopes • Temperature • Pressure • Winds • Ozone • Lightning • Aerosols and cloud particles • Source gases and tracers • IR radiance • Radicals

  8. Cloud, Aerosol, Water Vapor and Total Water Measurements • Cloud and aerosol particles • Chemical composition • Number, size, volume • Habit • Extinction and absorption • Source gases and tracers • Hydrocarbons, Formaldehyde • HN03, NOy, CO2, CO, HCl, CH3I, HCl • Sulfur species (e.g. H2SO4, SO2) • Radicals • NO, NO2, OH • HO2, RO2

  9. Cloud, Aerosol, Water Vapor, and Total Water Measurements • In-flow & out-flow in-situ UAV: Medium platform • Lidar, Microwave, Doppler Radar, FTIR, Ultra-violet spectrometer (UV-Vis),atmospheric samplers • Convective in-situ UAV: Medium platform • Lidar, Microwave, Doppler Radar, FTIR, Ultra-violet spectrometer (UV-Vis), Electrical Activity • Remote UAV: Very Long Endurance platform • Lidar, Microwave, Doppler Radar, Drop-sonde, FTIR , Optical Imager, UV-Vis, 95 GHz radar

  10. Cloud, Aerosol, Water Vapor, and Total Water Measurements • Sensor Measurements • Lidar #1 - water vapor • Lidar #2 – temperature, ozone, aerosol and cloud particles • Microwave – temperature • Doppler radar – winds • UV-Vis - ozone • FTIR – ozone, IR radiance • Optical imager – lightning • 95 Ghz radar – aerosol and cloud particles (ice water content) • Atmospheric samplers – cloud and aerosol particles, source gases and tracers, radicals

  11. Cloud, Aerosol, Water Vapor, and Total Water Measurements, cont’d

  12. Key mission characteristics: High altitude, long endurance 3 – 5 days All weather Convective in-situ platform Range: 22,000 nmi Terrain avoidance In-flow in-situ platform Formation (coordinated) flight Multi-ship operations Quick turn around Re-tasking mission during flight Remote platform observations Weather, cloud, chemical forecasts Vertical profiling Payload directed flight 4 week campaign with 2 -3 flights Cloud, Aerosol, Water Vapor, and Total Water Measurements

  13. Active Fire, Emissions, and Plume Assessment • Science objective: understand the influence of an active fire on carbon cycle dynamics • Measurements: • Atmospheric chemistry • Thermal intensity time-series • Plume composition: volume, albedo, particle size distribution • Fuel type and quality

  14. Active Fire, Emissions, and Plume Assessment • Remote UAV: Medium or Large platform • Imaging Spectrometer [thermal, midwave, shortwave IR] • Hyperspectral (350 – 2500 nm) • Downword looking port • 5 – 20m horizontal, 5 – 50 km swath • < 50 kg weight • Lidar • Resolution: .05 – 20 micron • Downword looking port • 1 m horizontal, 15 cm vertical • < 3 km swath • 30 kg weight • In-situ UAV: Medium platform • Isotope ratio mass spectrometers • Gas chromatographer • Non-dispersive infrared (IR) analyzer

  15. Active Fire, Emissions, and Plume Assessment, cont’d

  16. Active Fire, Emissions, and Plume Assessment • Key mission characteristics: • Endurance: 24 – 72 hours • All weather • In-situ platform flies in plume of fire • Formation (coordinated) flying • Multi-ship operations • Quick deployment / Quick turn-around • Re-tasking mission during flight • Payload directed flight • Engine emissions can’t affect measurements

  17. Southern Ocean Carbon Cycle • Science objective: local to regional sea-air flux measurements that reduce uncertainty in global measurements and models of CO2 flux • Measurements • Measure winds • CO2 • Sea state (obstacle avoidance) • Surface temperature

  18. Southern Ocean Carbon Cycle • UAV: small platform • CO2 sensor (1 sample/m @ 150 m/sec) • INU & GPS • Hydrometer • Radiometer • Ocean optics spectrometer • Hyper-spectral radiometer • Interferometer

  19. Southern Ocean Carbon Cycle, cont’d

  20. Southern Ocean Carbon Cycle • Key mission characteristics: • Endurance: 48 hr • Low altitude flight: < 10K ft • Coordinated flight (swarm) • Multi-ship operations • Re-tasking mission during flight • Sensor payload • Satellite data • Model forecasts • Vertical profiling • Remote base operation (potentially ships) • Payload directed flight

  21. Antarctic Explorer (Cryosphere) • Science objective: • Provide data for validating simulations of the dynamics of ice and land topography, iceberg volume, glacier profiles and glacier channel profiles • Provide data on the effect on the ocean environment • Measurements • Time dependence of ice and land topography • Coastal and open ocean salinity temperature, and currents, at surface and beneath iceberg depths • Time evolution of targeted iceberg freeboard volume, land glacier profiles, and glacier channel profiles • Atmospheric boundary layer observations at high space/time resolution

  22. Antarctic Explorer • UAV: Medium or Large platform • Optical imager • Magnetometer • Radar depth sounder: ice sheet thickness • Drop-buoys: sea salinity, currents (at surface and beneath • iceberg depths), temperature • Scanning Lidar: topographic mapping

  23. Antarctic Explorer, cont’d

  24. Antarctic Explorer • Key mission characteristics: • Endurance: > 12 hr on-station (low altitude) • Range: Antarctic continent • All weather • Terrain avoidance • Quick deploy • Quick turn around • Re-tasking mission during flight • Dynamic event, e.g. ice shelf break-up • Remote base operations • One mission every 3 days for 2 months, during ice break-ups

  25. Vegetation Structure, Composition, and Canopy Chemistry • Science objective: Provide 3-dimensional vegetation structure and information on composition and chemistry • Measurements • Terrestrial biomass • Leaf-level chemistry (eg. lignin, xanthophylls, etc.) • Water canopy content

  26. UAV 1: Medium Platform Synthetic aperature radar (L=structure) 5-10m horizontal; 1m vertical 5-20km swath single pass interferometry UAV 2: Medium Platform Synthetic aperature radar (p=ground return) 5-10m horizontal; 1m vertical 5-20km swath single pass interferometry Imaging spectrometer Hyperspectral (350nm-2500nm), 10nm channels downward-looking port 5-20m horizontal 5-50km swath UAV 3: Medium Platform Synthetic aperature radar (x=top of canopy) Lidar 2 frequency (525m, 1050nm), waveform digitized downward-looking port 1m horizontal; 15cm vertical Vegetation Structure, Composition, and Canopy Chemistry

  27. Vegetation Structure, Composition, and Canopy Chemistry, cont’d

  28. Vegetation Structure, Composition, and Canopy Chemistry • Key mission characteristics: • Endurance: 12 – 24 hr • Formation (coordinated) flight • Multi-ship operations • Flights weekly during seasons of interest

  29. Summary • Why are we here? • To supply science sensor technology gap data to fit within user-defined future UAV uses • To document power/propulsion shortfalls • What are we going to do? • Meet in two sessions to collect the data • Mission based • Technology based • What do we hope to gain? • Updates to the capabilities assessment which will enable efficient funding policies of key technologies

  30. Logistics • Mission session at 1:30 • Sensor track: Room 335 • Power and Propulsion Track: Room 312 • No later than 5:30 PM: report out within each track • Lunch Logistics… • TBD