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Marathon Site

Marathon Site

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Marathon Site

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  1. Marathon Site Marathon Battery Cold Spring, NY CERCLA Cleanup Project Goals Resources Project Description Procedures Competitive Analysis Schedules & Status Technology Related Documents W. Fish, Portland State University

  2. Instructions: • Delete sample document icon and replace with working document icons as follows: • Create document in Word. • Return to PowerPoint. • From Insert Menu, select Object… • Click “Create from File” • Locate File name in “File” box • Make sure “Display as Icon” is checked. • Click OK • Select icon • From Slide Show Menu, Select Action Settings. • Click “Object Action” and select “Edit” • Click OK Site Description • On the Hudson River in NY; Two components: • East FoundryCove Marsh (EFCM) • Constitution Marsh • Click for Details W. Fish, Portland State University

  3. Site Map

  4. East Foundry Cove Marsh

  5. Instructions: • Delete sample document icon and replace with working document icons as follows: • Create document in Word. • Return to PowerPoint. • From Insert Menu, select Object… • Click “Create from File” • Locate File name in “File” box • Make sure “Display as Icon” is checked. • Click OK • Select icon • From Slide Show Menu, Select Action Settings. • Click “Object Action” and select “Edit” • Click OK History: US Army • 1952: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Constructed • 1953, under Contract with the Army Signal Corps, Sonotone Corporation operated plant to produce nickel-cadmium batteries for use in the Nike missile program • Run under Army ownership 1953-1962; declared “excess proprty in 1962. • Click for Data Sheet W. Fish, Portland State University

  6. Instructions: • Delete sample document icon and replace with working document icons as follows: • Create document in Word. • Return to PowerPoint. • From Insert Menu, select Object… • Click “Create from File” • Locate File name in “File” box • Make sure “Display as Icon” is checked. • Click OK • Select icon • From Slide Show Menu, Select Action Settings. • Click “Object Action” and select “Edit” • Click OK Private Owners • 1962: U.S. sold it to Sonotone Corporation. • 1967: Sonotone Corporation became a wholly-owned subsidiary of Clevite Corporation W. Fish, Portland State University

  7. Instructions: • Delete sample document icon and replace with working document icons as follows: • Create document in Word. • Return to PowerPoint. • From Insert Menu, select Object… • Click “Create from File” • Locate File name in “File” box • Make sure “Display as Icon” is checked. • Click OK • Select icon • From Slide Show Menu, Select Action Settings. • Click “Object Action” and select “Edit” • Click OK Marathon • 1969, Clevite Corporation Merged with Gould, Inc. • 1969, Gould, Inc. sold the Plant to Business Fund, Inc.; later changed its name to Marathon Battery Company (MBC) • MBC operated the plant until March 1979. W. Fish, Portland State University

  8. Instructions: • Delete sample document icon and replace with working document icons as follows: • Create document in Word. • Return to PowerPoint. • From Insert Menu, select Object… • Click “Create from File” • Locate File name in “File” box • Make sure “Display as Icon” is checked. • Click OK • Select icon • From Slide Show Menu, Select Action Settings. • Click “Object Action” and select “Edit” • Click OK After the Battery Era • Plant inactive from 3/79 until 11/80 • Battery manufacturing equipment removed and shipped to an MBC plant in Waco, Texas • Sold to the current owner, Merchandise Dynamics, incorporated, for use as a book storage facility • Click for Details W. Fish, Portland State University

  9. Instructions: • Delete sample document icon and replace with working document icons as follows: • Create document in Word. • Return to PowerPoint. • From Insert Menu, select Object… • Click “Create from File” • Locate File name in “File” box • Make sure “Display as Icon” is checked. • Click OK • Select icon • From Slide Show Menu, Select Action Settings. • Click “Object Action” and select “Edit” • Click OK Contaminants of Concern • Cadmium: Cd • Toxic to humans, animals and plants • Carcinogenic • Waste stream had huge amounts of Cd, mostly as Cd hydroxide (10’s-100’s mg/L) • Also caustic wastes (pH 12-14) W. Fish, Portland State University

  10. Instructions: • Delete sample document icon and replace with working document icons as follows: • Create document in Word. • Return to PowerPoint. • From Insert Menu, select Object… • Click “Create from File” • Locate File name in “File” box • Make sure “Display as Icon” is checked. • Click OK • Select icon • From Slide Show Menu, Select Action Settings. • Click “Object Action” and select “Edit” • Click OK Original Wastewater Treatment System • A lift station and piping for transfer of all process wastewater into the Cold Spring sewer (100,000-200,000 gal/day) • Discharged directly into the Hudson River • Bypass Valve Was Installed • When the Lift Station Was Shut down or Overloaded, direct Gravity Discharge Could Be Made into a Storm Sewer • Click for Detailed Schedule W. Fish, Portland State University

  11. Discharges to EFCM • High dissolved solids and pH 12-14 of the effluent resulted in extreme fouling within the pump and piping • Pumps required shut down and maintenance • Bypass valve was opened and the flow diverted to EFCM about twice a week W. Fish, Portland State University

  12. Cadmium Load: • Approximately 50,000 kg (over 52 tons) of cadmium may have been discharged to the cove during the life of the plant • About half the metal purchased did not make in into batteries

  13. New Sewage Plant • 1965: New York State Department of Health said Cold Spring must build sewage treatment plant • Battery Plant effluent could not be handled: too toxic • Sonotone ordered to disconnect from sewer • Entire waste flow diverted to storm sewer • USACE (1966) told company to quit discharging to the Hudson

  14. Attempts at Treatment • January 1967: NY Dept of Health advised Sonotone it was in violation • Plant given Jan 1, 1970 deadline to comply with state discharge regulation • Sonotone installed treatment equipment • Never really worked, Cd kept on flowing • NY found lots of Cd in marsh, river

  15. 70 Civ. 4110 • Judgement of Federal Court • Suit brought under Federal Water Pollution Control Administration against Marathon (pre-EPA) • Enforcement then shifted to new EPA

  16. Relief Sought by U.S. • Permanent injunction against further discharge of Cd and other metals into Foundry Cove • Demanded removal of Cd in sediments • Sept. 1971: Complaint amended, named Sonotone, Cleveite and Gould as additional defendants

  17. Final Judgment (70 Civ.4110) • June 1972: Remove all sediment with Cd >900 ppm (mg/kg) • 1971: Discharge was stopped; routed back to sewer after treatment • 1972-1973: Hydraulic dredging by GOULD • Design: Dr. Harry Gregor, Columbia U.

  18. 1st Dredging Operation • Hydraulic dredging of “hot” areas • Dr. Gregor instructed crew to remove all soft sediment from outfall area (~2-4 ft deep) • Gravel base fairly clean • In Cove, Gregor delineated with stakes 22 acres with Cd > 1000 ppm

  19. On-Site Soil Handling • Spoils dewatered in parking lot inside a temporary dike • dewatering leaked all over the place • Effluent settle overnight, discharge to marsh • Solids mixed with limestone, scored in underground vault on site

  20. Areas Dredged • Outfall area • Channel leading to the marsh • Cove:Winter ’72 ice uprooted stakes and Gregor had to redelineate and finish in spring 1973 • About 4000 cu.m. stored in vault

  21. “Satisfaction” • April 24, 1974: US Attorney issues “satisfaction of judgment” • Site is off the hook…or isi it? • Agreement included monitoring by NYS Dept. of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC) • Studies by NYSDEC, EPA, NYU

  22. Whoops, There it Is • Studies showed much of area was still > 900 mg/kg • Channel area was recontaminated • In fact in 1973 Gregor had to have channel redredged, but he did not worry about surrounding marsh • Only about 10% of Cd had been removed

  23. Dr. Theo Kneip, NYU • 1974: Found the recontamination • Found the 1000 ppm zone was 50% larger than Gregor’s zone just one year before • >50,000 ppm within the area dredged the prior year! (= 5% Cd by weight) • 135,000 pmm near the outfall

  24. Cd Data of Kneip et al. 1974

  25. MBC Internal Memos: • “He told Jack that he was working on a Federal grant and, as a matter of courtesy wanted us to know the Cd background level of the Hudson River is higher in many cases after the dredging than before”

  26. MBC Internal Memos • [10 days later] “At any rate he now reports increased Cd levels in the cove and the river due to the dredging. This does not necessarily bother or surprise us, since this was our prediction and which was basically ignored by the Final Jedgment [sic].”

  27. CERCLA • 1980: CERCLA Passed • 1981: First National Priority List (NPL) Prepared • Guess what was one of the first sites proposed for the interim NPL? • 1983 went on Final NPL • Also OSHA found high Cd dust inside book warehouse

  28. CERCLA Units • 1986 Record of Decision (ROD): Three “Operating Units” (OU’s) • Area I: EFCM & Constitution Marsh • Area II: Plant, grounds, vault • Area III: Cove itself and Hudson

  29. RI/FS Findings • ~8% of EFCM had >1000 mg/kg Cd

  30. Sediment Cd Profiles

  31. Cd Accumulation in Biota • High levels of Cd found in a number of organisms (e.g., Limnodrilus hoffmeisterii)

  32. Cd Accumulation in Muskrats

  33. Muskrats in Cold Spring Exhibit Odd behavior • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Lbh9c0noR4s

  34. ROD Plan: 1986 • Dredge Hudson near old sewer outfall • Dredge Cove and EFCM, dewater, haul offsite • Re-vegetate EFCM • Leave Constitution Marsh alone • Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) • 2 other RODS issued ‘88, ‘89

  35. Final Consent Decrees • Marathon, Gould, USACE are Responsible Parties (RP’s) • Total cost $109 million • Gould $57M • ACOE $43 M • Marathon $9M • Insurance paying much of Gould and MBC

  36. Dredging Began 1993 • Dredging removed 55,000 cu.yd sediment to depth of 1 ft. • Assumed to get about 95% of Cd this way • Unlike 1972-73, did not shoot for a specific target concentration • Dredging completed in 1994

  37. Marsh Cleanup • 1800’ dike, 6-7 ft high • 31,000 cu.yd soil excavated, treated, shipped of site • Reconstructed and revegetated the marsh

  38. Marsh Cleanup Foundry Cove Treatment Dike RR Line Dike Drainage Stored Sludge Rail Transfer Dewatering Pond

  39. Sediment Cd “Fixation”

  40. Rail Line for Removal

  41. DELISTING • Declared finished and delisted from NPL, October 1996