the 2 nd french revolution n.
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The 2 nd French Revolution

The 2 nd French Revolution

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The 2 nd French Revolution

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  1. The 2nd French Revolution

  2. Emergence of the Jacobins • Issues raised by the CC of the C and Louis XVI’s uncertainty undermined the unity of the newly organized nation • Ever since the original calling of the EG, deputies from the 3rd E had organized themselves into clubs composed of politically like-minded persons • Most famous = Jacobins

  3. Emergence of Jacobins • Most advanced political group in the NCA, pressing for a republic rather than a constitutional monarchy • Political language drawn from the most RADICAL thought of the Enlightenment • Language/ideas became more effective b/c events of 1789-1791 had destroyed the old political framework of the old monarchical system.

  4. Emergence of the Jacobins • Opposed forces of counterrevolution: passed 1 measure ordering the emigres to return or suffer loss of property and another requiring the refractory clergy to support the CC of the C or lose state pensions • 4/20/1792-Girondists lead the LA in declaring war on Austria governed by Francis II and allied to Prussia • Girondists believed war would preserve the revolution from domestic enemies and bring the most advanced revolutionaries to power • War radicalized the REV; led to what is usually called the second revolution which overthrew the constitutional monarchy and established a republic

  5. Emergence of Jacobins • Radical working-class pressure caused the gov. of Paris to pass from the elected council to a committee, or commune, of representatives from the sections of the city • August 10, 1792 a large Parisian crowd invaded the Tuileries palace and forced Louis XVI and Marie to take refuge in the LA

  6. The Convention and the Role of the Sans-Culottes • Sept. Massacres – Sept 1792 • Paris Commune compelled the LA to call for election by universal male voting of a new assembly to write a democratic constitution • Convention-new assembly met on Sept. 21, 1792 • Previous day the Fr. army had halted the Prussian advance at the Battle of Valmy in eastern France • Impact: victory of democratic forces at home confirmed by victory in battle • First act of Convention-declared France a republic, a nation governed by an elected assembly w/o a monarch

  7. Sans-culottes • Second REV had been the work of Jacobins more radical than the Girondists and the people of Paris known as the sans-culottes, people without breeches • Shopkeepers, artisans, wage earners, factor workers

  8. Goals Sans-Culottes • Sought immediate relief from food shortages and rising prices, believed all ppl had a right to subsistence and resented social inequality • Intensely hostile to the aristocracy and the original leaders of the REV • Advocated a community of small property owners who would also participate in political nation • Antimonarchichal, strongly republic an and suspicious of even representative government

  9. The Policies of the Jacobins • Goals of the sans-culottes were not wholly compatible with Jacobins-republicans who sought representative gov. whose hatred of the aristocracy did not extend to a general suspicion of social and economic inequality

  10. Jacobins • Jacobins favored an unregulated economy • From time of Louis’s flight to Varennes, more extreme Jacobins began to cooperate with the leaders of the sans-culottes and the Paris Commune • These Jacobins, known as the Mountain because of their seats high in the assembly hall worked with the sans-culottes to carry the REV forward and win the war during the Convention • The Mountain’s willingness to coop with the forces of the popular revolution separated them from the Girondists who were also members of the Jacobins

  11. Execution of Louis XVI • Louis XVI was put on trial as a mere “Citizen Capet”, the family name of extremely distant forebears of the royal family in Dec. 1792 • Girondists tried to spare his life, but the Mountain defeated them • Louis was convicted by a very narrow majority of conspiring against the liberty of the people and the security of the state • Beheaded on January 21, 1793 • The next month, Convention declares war on GB, Holland, and Spain

  12. Louis XVI’s Head (January 21, 1793) • The trial of the king was hastened by the discovery in a secret cupboard in the Tuilieres of a cache of documents. • They proved conclusively Louis’ knowledge and encouragement of foreign intervention. • The National Convention voted387 to 334 to execute the monarchs.

  13. The Sans-Culottes:The Parisian Working Class • Small shopkeepers. • Tradesmen. • Artisans.

  14. The Death of “Citizen” Louis Capet Matter for reflectionfor the crowned jugglers. So impure blooddoesn’t soil our land!

  15. Marie Antoinette Died in October, 1793

  16. Marie Antoinette on the Way to the Guillotine