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Cultural differences in intellectual property

Turning the Tide of Plagiarism title borrowed from Ranald Macdonald “why don’t we turn the tide of plagiarism to the learners advantage” Times Higher Education Supplement Nov 24, 2000.

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Cultural differences in intellectual property

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  1. Turning the Tide of Plagiarismtitle borrowed from Ranald Macdonald “why don’t we turn the tide of plagiarism to the learners advantage” Times Higher Education Supplement Nov 24, 2000

  2. What Tide? ·    There is a lot of cheating and plagiarism going on nationally, and yes, even here at Plattsburgh.·    We have the responsibility and the means to prevent much of it.·    We have the responsibility and the means to detect much of it.Adapted from a SUNY Librarians Association poster by April Davies andHolly Heller-RossSUNYLA 2003Stony Brook

  3. Cultural differences in intellectual property • Plagiarism is a problem the whole world around. From ancient to modern times, people have used the ideas and words of others. There are some historical and cultural differences however in how/if they have claimed them for their own.

  4. USA • Words and ideas belong to the individual • Quotations and citations are required • But…41% of students surveyed admit to “cut &paste” plagiarism. • Source: 2001 Research project conducted by Donald L. McCabe of Rutgers University http://www.academicintegrity.org/cai_research.asp

  5. China • Words and ideas belonged to the society, as did economic means of production • Practice is to use quotes without citing as everyone knows it’s a quote • Sources: Dr. Jeff Hornibrook, Plattsburgh State University Asian Studies Scholar, andMyers, Sharon. "Questioning Author(ity): ESL/EFL, Science, and Teaching about Plagiarism." TESL-EJ 3.2 (1998).

  6. Greece • Definition of fairness based on individual success • Cultural disregard for laws that make survival or success more difficult: may be rooted in 400 years of Turkish Occupation when Greeks felt they had to connive to come out ahead of the occupying authority. • Source: Evangeline Mourelatos, Professor, The American College of Greece. In Sinceritas Vol3, No6, Oct. 2003.

  7. Ancient & Renaissance Western Civilization • Words and ideas belong to an individual • But…others may and should imitate them widely…if they are any good! • Source: 1935 book by Harold Ogden White titled Plagiarism and Imitation During the English Renaissance

  8. Lost at Sea • Sally and Sam Student are fighting to reach the coast of careful scholarship against the tide of plagiarism. • However, the Terrible Tide of Plagiarism keeps reaching out to toss them back into the sea.

  9. The Coast Guard: Tara Teacher, Larry Librarian, Anna Administrator • The coast of careful scholarship is a rocky one, but most students do make it onshore after a few tries. • What can the Coast Guard do to help students fight against the Terrible Tide of Plagiarism?

  10. History: Has the coast always been this rocky? The tide this strong? • “The Romans rewrote the Greeks. Virgil is, in a broadly imitative way, Homer, and for that matter, typologists can find most of the Old Testament in the New.” “…it was printing of course that changed everything.”” • First English Use of Plagiarism: 1755 Dr. Johnson’s Dictionary of the English Language “Plagiarism. N.f. [from plagiary] Theft; literary adoption of the thoughts or works of another. • Source: Mallon, Thomas (1989) Stolen Words; Forays into the origins and ravages of plagiarism. Ticknor & Fields

  11. Statistics: How many students are caught in the tide? • Almost 80% of college students admit to cheating at least once. • 36% of undergraduates have admitted to plagiarizing written material. • 58.3% of high school students let someone else copy their work in 1969, and 97.5% did so in 1989. • Source: a variety of surveys and polls listed on the Plagiarism.org web site

  12. Nothing New, and Not Just Students!!! • Teacher Christine Pelton in Piper Kansas (2002) resigned after the school board overturned zero’s earned by 28 students. • Senator Joe Biden from Delaware, plagiarized for a 1988 campaign speech. • Columnist Mike Barnacle in Boston, 1998. Jayson Blair in NY, 2003, • University of Virginia 2002, 45 students eventually dismissed, 3 graduate degrees revoked.

  13. Ethics: Why should students struggle against the Tide? Why should the coast guard guide or rescue them? • Virtue Ethics (Aristotle) : Strive for happiness, to be as fully human as possible, balance between a painful excess of honesty and the vice of dishonesty. • Ethical Relativism (Williams) : Morality is a product of cultural norms, the culture of academia is to cite!! Alternate, student culture might be to plagiarize! • Utilitarianism (Bentham and Mill): The good produces a net benefit, learn and be rewarded. Alternatively, could be used to justify plagiarism in one class to study in another! • Ethics of Care (Noddings and Gilligan): Moral responsibility for the benefit of those you care about, therefore don’t cheat yourself out of an education, or your friends out of a fair grade. Alternative plagiarize from a book in order to help yourself or let a friend copy your lab report! • Kantian Ethics (moral law) (Kant): There are moral laws and they apply equally to all persons, therefore don’t plagiarize if you think it wrong to steal other people’s property, if you wouldn’t want them to steal your property. Plagiarize only in order to protect life or something equally critical. • Source: Birsch, Douglas (2001 Ethical Insights: A brief introduction, 2nd edition. McGraw-Hill Higher Education

  14. Common Reasons: Why is the Tide so strong? • Lack of Interest in Learning • Ignorance • Fear • Poor Time Management • Inconsistent Enforcement

  15. Prevention: Can anything turn the Tide? Do any buoys mark the channel? • Course and assignment design • Instruction in proper paraphrasing, quotation, and documentation • Ethical, Fair, and Understandable policies • Consistent enforcement of policy

  16. Detection: How does the coast guard know who's lost at sea? • Know the common clues and look for them • Inconsistent style/ fonts/ vocabulary • Jarring transitions • References in text or bib, but not both • Search print references and online databases for suspicious phrases • Ask your students to explain their work, or elaborate on a statement • Ask a librarian or other colleague for help • Use a plagiarism detection service: turnitin.com, Glatt, Eve,

  17. Curriculum: Can the coast guard offer boater safely/navigation classes? • Introduction to Information Research by Carla J. List. 2002 edition. Chapter 7 “Evaluating and Citing Information Sources” • Plagiarism 101 from SUNY Albany. subtitled: How to write term papers without being sucked into the black hole.. • Plagiarism Tutorial from North Carolina State University Developed by the NCSU Libraries' Scholarly Communication Center • Searchpath Module 6: Citing Sources from Western Michigan University.

  18. Institutional Policy: What can the city councils do? • Improve and publicize policies • Support faculty educational and assignment design efforts • Consider institutional strategies such as • A modified honor code • Integrity as part of orientation • Tracking violations, repeats • Involving the student judicial process • Setting a a college-wide citation style • Creating a college research and writing handbook

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