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Group 1

Group 1. Group 1 mini case Presentation Due on February 22 Mini case: Delta, Northwest Airlines, and Vancouver Airport: The business Value of Customer Self-Service Kiosks (87) . FUTURE of Media. IT Hardware. Left: The on-board L2 cache.

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Group 1

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  1. Group 1 • Group 1 mini case Presentation Due on February 22 Mini case: Delta, Northwest Airlines, and Vancouver Airport: The business Value of Customer Self-Service Kiosks (87)

  2. FUTURE of Media •

  3. IT Hardware Left: The on-board L2 cache. Right: The Pentium® Pro processor core with 5.5 million transistors. Source: Intel

  4. Learning Objectives • Understand the history and evolution of computer hardware. • Outline the major technologies and uses of computer peripherals for input, output, and storage. • Identify and give example of the components and functions of a computer system.

  5. Learning Objectives 4. Identify the computer systems and peripherals you would acquire or recommend for a business of your choice, and explain the reasons for your selections.

  6. Microcomputer Systems • Personal Computer (PC) – microcomputer for use by an individual • Desktop – fit on an office desk • Laptop – small, portable PC

  7. Microcomputer Systems • Workstation – a powerful, networked PC for business professionals • Network Server – more powerful microcomputers that coordinate telecommunications and resource sharing in small networks

  8. Information Appliances • Hand-held microcomputer devices • Personal digital assistants (PDA) • BlackBerry • Video-game consoles • Internet enabled cellular phones

  9. Hardware: Your Physical InterfaceCharacteristics of CPUs and RAM

  10. Motherboard: components bus , chipset, CPU, memory

  11. Motherboard: chipset • components of the chipset • memory controller • I/O controller • bus controller • cache controller • types of chipsets

  12. Motherboard: bus system • data bus • address bus • system/control bus • expansion slots • ISA, EISA, VESA,SCSI, PCI, AGP • How local bus works?PCI vs VESA • Bus speeds: Pentium 4 and AthlonXP

  13. What’s a BUS? • A collection of wires through which data is transmitted from one part of a computer to another. • A bus connects all the internal computer components to the CPU and main memory. There's also an expansion bus that enables expansion boards to access the CPU and memory • Every bus has a clock speed measured in MHz

  14. All buses consist of two parts -- an address bus and a data bus. The data bus transfers actual data whereas the address bus transfers information about where the data should go. • The size of a bus, known as its width, is determines how much data can be transmitted at one time. For example, a 16-bit bus can transmit 16 bits of data, whereas a 32-bit bus can transmit 32 bits of data.

  15. Semiconductor memory • Microelectronic semiconductor memory chips • Used for primary storage • Advantage: • Small size • Fast • Shock and temperature resistance • Disadvantage: • Volatility: must have uninterrupted electric power or lose memory

  16. Two types of semiconductor memory • RAM: random access memory • Most widely used primary storage medium • Volatile memory • Read/write memory • ROM: read only memory • Permanent storage • Can be read but cannot be overwritten • Frequently used programs burnt into chips during manufacturing

  17. Bit and Byte • Bit (short for binary digit) • Smallest element of data • Either zero or one • Byte • Group of eight bits which operate as a single unit • Represents one character or number

  18. Representing characters in bytes

  19. Computers use binary system to calculate • Decimal • Octal • Binary • ASCII

  20. Measuring storage capacities • Kilobyte (KB): one thousand bytes • Megabyte (MB): one million bytes • Gigabyte (GB): one billion bytes • Terabyte (TB): one trillion bytes • Petabyte (PB): one quadrillion bytes

  21. Main Memory • basic concepts • memory banks (0,1,2): 64 Meg to 1 Gig • SIMMs (single in-line memory modules), DIMMS (dual in-line memory modules), SDRAM (synchronous DRAM) • SIMMs older, DIMMS old, SDRAM newer PCs • additional references • Upgrading memory

  22. Updating Memory • RAM is sold in the form of chips contained on small circuit boards called memory modules. • Most PCs have three DIMM sockets on their motherboards, and one or two of them are usually free. Adding RAM is as simple as plugging in new DIMMs

  23. Disk drives • Hard-drives • Overview • Speed • Interfaces: IDE, SCSI, SATA, IDE vs SCSI • CD and DVD • basics: CD standard and DVDstandards • xA measurement of CD or DVD drive speed. Each x translates to either 153,600 bytes of data per second, the data rate of the CD-audio or 1,250,000 bytes per second, the data rate of the DVD-video. • USB flash drives • Overview

  24. Magnetic Disks • Used for secondary storage • Fast access and high storage capacity Source: Corbis. Source: Quantum.

  25. Types of magnetic disks • Floppy disks • Magnetic disk inside a plastic jacket • Hard disk drives • Magnetic disk, access arms, and read/write heads in sealed module • RAID (Redundant arrays of independent disks) • Disk arrays of interconnected hard disk drives • Fault tolerant with multiple copies on several disks

  26. Optical Disks

  27. Uses of optical disks • Image processing • Long term storage of historical files of images • Scan documents and store on optical disks • Publishing medium for fast access to reference materials • Catalogs, directories, etc. • Interactive multimedia applications • Video games, educational videos, etc.

  28. Disk drive performance • Fragmentation • Compression. • Cache • Swap file (paging file)

  29. Fragmentation Fragmentation means two things: File fragmentation: a condition in which individual files on a disk are not contiguous but are broken up in pieces scattered around the disk; Disk Fragmentation: a condition in which the free space on a disk consists of little bits of free space here and there rather than only one or a few free spaces.

  30. Compression • Zip • Winzip

  31. Example: In John F. Kennedy's 1961 inaugural address, he delivered this famous line: • "Ask not what your country can do for you -- ask what you can do for your country." The quote has 17 words, made up of 61 letters, 16 spaces, one dash and one period. If each letter, space or punctuation mark takes up one unit of memory, we get a total file size of 79 units. To get the file size down, we need to look for redundancies.

  32. "Ask not what your country can do for you -- ask what you can do for your country." • "ask" appears two times • "what" appears two times • "your" appears two times • "country" appears two times • "can" appears two times • "do" appears two times • "for" appears two times • "you" appears two times our dictionary: Our sentence now reads:

  33. "Ask not what your country can do for you -- ask what you can do for your country." • full phrase takes up 79 units. • Our compressed sentence (including spaces) takes up 37 units, and the dictionary (words and numbers) also takes up 37 units. This gives us a file size of 74, so we haven't reduced the file size by very much.

  34. Others • graphics cards: • monitors: resolution, size, analog vs. digital • printers: ink, laser, color, speed. • Modems: phone lines, cable and DSL • scanners • digital cameras

  35. Hardware: Your Physical InterfaceConnecting Devices • Connecting devices enable your hardware to communicate with each other. • Busses – system and expansion. • Expansion – slots and cards. • Ports and connectors – USB, serial, parallel, and IrDA

  36. Hardware: Your Physical InterfaceConnecting Devices

  37. Keyboard and mouse ports USB port Serial port Parallel port Hardware: Your Physical Interface

  38. Hardware: Your Physical InterfaceConnecting Devices • Popular connectors include: • USB (universal serial bus) –the most popular means of connecting devices to a computer. • Serial connector – usually has 9 holes but may have 25, which fit into the corresponding number of pins in the port. • Parallel connector – has 25 pins, which fit into the corresponding holes in the port.

  39. Hardware: Your Physical InterfaceConnecting Devices

  40. Hardware: Your Physical InterfaceConnecting Devices • IrDA (infrared data association) ports –are for wireless devices that work in essentially the same way as the remote control on your TV does.

  41. Radio Frequency Identification • RFID • Tag and identify mobile objects • E.g., store merchandise, postal packages, pets • Use RFID chips to transmit and receive radio signals • Chips half the size of a grain of sand • Passive chips: • do not have power source and derive power from signal in reader • Active chips: • Self-powered

  42. RFID versus bar codes • RFID • Scan from greater distance • Can store data • Allows more information to be tracked • Privacy concerns due to invisible nature • RFID Controversy Most concerns revolve around the fact that RFID tags affixed to products remain functional even after the products have been purchased and taken home and thus can be used for surveillance and other purposes unrelated to their supply chain inventory functions

  43. CASE 1/p 71

  44. Case 1/p71 What are some of the benefits that organizations could realize by connecting all of their employees by mobile devices? Possible benefits could include: • Mobile sale forces could do product demonstrations, check inventory and place orders online while at the customer location. • Reduction of the time needed to locate other employees, especially when they are off-site. • Keep employees abreast of any important news when away on travel (conferences, meetings, presentations). • Increased available productive time, as constant connectivity allows for activities to be performed anytime anyplace.

  45. Are the CIOs in the case saying that ROI is not important when deploying mobile computing devices? Not necessarily. ROI is always a consideration companies have when making any investment. In this particular case however, the estimated benefits obtained by the adoption of these communication devices are large enough that outweigh cost considerations and thus displace formal ROI analyses and concerns.

  46. Part 3 Possible reasons could include: • Single and integrated device for voice and data communications • Push technology – data is routed to the user rather than retrieved by him/her • Operates in several different networks and countries • It is possible to view email attachments • Design features: high-resolution color display, long battery life, improved keyboard, etc. • Integrated connectivity applications (SMS, browser, organizer)

  47. Can Computers Think Like People?

  48. Additional Readings •

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