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Mgt 20600: IT Management & Applications Hardware PowerPoint Presentation
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Mgt 20600: IT Management & Applications Hardware

Mgt 20600: IT Management & Applications Hardware

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Mgt 20600: IT Management & Applications Hardware

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  1. Mgt 20600: IT Management & ApplicationsHardware Tuesday February 7, 2006

  2. Reminders • Reading • For next week • Fundamentals text, Chapter Two, Software section • Homework • Homework One due Friday, 2/10 by 5pm • Submit to Mgt20600.01, .02, .03, or .04 dropbox • Next week’s class session: Software

  3. Information Systems:The System of Hardware Components Input Devices Memory and Processor Storage and Output Devices

  4. Input Devices • A huge variety to choose from • Must match input device to task • Keyboard • Mouse • Biometric mice • Microphones/voice recognition • Touch screens • Bar-code scanners • Point-of-sale devices • Radio frequency ID chips • Examples • Self check-out counter input devices? • Cell phone input devices? • PDA input devices? • PC input devices?

  5. Processing the Inputs • Processing device works hand in hand with • Memory (book uses primary storage as a synonym for this) • To process • Data transferred to the system by the input devices • Instructions from the operating system and software applications

  6. Communication Between CPU and RAM

  7. What a Processor Looks Like

  8. Processing the Inputs: The Processor • Processors can vary according to • Size – how much data they can process at a time • Speed – how fast they execute instructions • Coordinated or multi-processing – how many processors work together • The materials from which they are made • How fast they can communicate with memory and with each other • Of course this affects the cost! • Intel’s Multi-Core Processors • The future • Nanoswitches (2015) • Spin transistors • Crossbar latches • The trick is to buy the right processor for the task at hand! • Examples • WalMart’s transaction processing system • Individual executive’s spreadsheet analysis

  9. Processing the Inputs: Memory • Memory varies according to • Size – how much capacity it has • Volatility – whether you lose what’s in it when the electricity goes off • Function – ROM (read-only memory) holds permanent instructions whereas RAM (random access memory) holds temporary data and instructions • Speed - How fast it can communicate with the processor (bus speed) • How close it is located to the processor (cache memory) • Again, you must match your memory purchase to the tasks you intend to perform

  10. Different Types of Memory

  11. What Memory Looks Like

  12. Bits and Bytes

  13. Storing the Output • Secondary or long-term storage is used to permanently store data or output • Greater capacity and greater economy than memory • Many different types of secondary storage devices that vary by • Capacity • Cost • Speed of data retrieval • Access method

  14. Storing the Output • Secondary storage devices • Hard disk (magnetic disk) • Floppy disk (magnetic disk) • Compact disc read-only memory (CD-ROM) • CD-recordable (CD-R) discs • CD-rewritable (CD-RW) discs • Digital versatile disc (DVD) • Memory cards • Expandable storage, i.e., zip drives • Redundant array of independent/inexpensive disks (RAID) • Magnetic tapes • Storage Area Network (SAN) • The Future: Holographic Disks • Can attain far higher density of data storage than standard magnetic disk drives • Data stored as a holograph throughout the polymer material that makes up a disk • The Future: Blu-ray Disc or HD-DVD as replacements for DVD’s • Guess what! You have to match your storage device to the tasks you are undertaking!

  15. What a Hard Disk Looks Like

  16. Comparison of Secondary Device Capacities and Cost

  17. RAID

  18. Storage Area Network

  19. Displaying the Output • There are also countless ways to display the output of your information processing • Output device types • Computer screen • Printer • Mobile device • Telephone • Head phones • A look at the future: Electronic paper • Need I say it again! Match the output device to your needs and budget!

  20. Information Systems:The System of Hardware Components Input Devices Memory and Processor Storage and Output Devices

  21. Computer System Types • Very often all the input, output, processing, memory, and storage devices will come bundled together in a computer system you buy as a whole • The major computer systems types are • Handheld computers • Portable computers • Thin client • Desktop computers • Workstations • Servers • Mainframe computers • Supercomputers • Each type has a very different role in life! • Your job, of course, is to choose which best fits your organization’s needs and budget

  22. Comparison of Major Computer System Types MIPS: Millions of instructions per second Teraflop: A trillion floating point operations per second

  23. Heterogeneous IT Environments • Corporate IT infrastructure usually includes many different types of computers running different types of software • Hannaford Brothers Co., $5 billion grocery retailer • 2 IBM mainframes • 200 Unix AIX servers • 250 Windows servers

  24. Mobile Devices on the Corporate Radar • Wireless laptop • Handheld computer • Wireless email device • Cell phone • Smart phone • Camera phones • Tablet PC’s • Handheld scanners • RFID devices • Hybrid Wi-Fi/cell phones

  25. CFO Mobile Tech Use

  26. Mobile Devices in the Corporate Environment • Concerns • Data carried from within the protected confines of the corporate computing infrastructure • Administrative costs of providing support for many different platforms • Good mobile device management strategy • Ascertain if there is a business need for the device • Benefit of using the tool versus the added overhead cost of accommodating the tool • Segment employees by job function • Decide on list of devices that IT will (and will not) support • Standardize on particular devices • Devise a training plan for users and help desk staffers • Develop enforcement mechanisms that will ensure device security • Ability to remotely perform a hard reset of a mobile device • Encrypt wireless transmissions • Power-on passwords • UPS example • If user’s primary need is access to email and the Web, she gets a smart phone • If user’s primary need is access to business applications to do her job, she gets a laptop

  27. Mobile Devices in the Corporation • Accepting payments on the go • Cell phone and card swipe attachment • Handheld with built-in swipe slot • Used by merchants who want to accept payment on the go like • Plumbers • Limousine drivers • Flea market proprietors • Restaurants • Car rental firms • Sonic drive-in restaurants

  28. Mobile Devices in the Corporation • GPS-enabled phones or handhelds • Used by SuperShuttle to equip its drivers to improve scheduling capabilities and customer service • Driver benefits • Dispatchers could guide them around traffic jams • Drivers could choose fares by finding the closest ones on a GPS map • Drivers had more control • Used by Del-Air, a Florida heating, ventilation, air conditioning contractor • Better way to track its technicians • Instituted bonus pay related to quick work – validated by GPS data

  29. Mobile Devices in the Corporation • Wireless in the warehouse • Laptops, handhelds, smart phones • Can be used to monitor almost everything that moves in a manufacturing environment • More efficient • Inventory management • Enterprise asset management and maintenance • Order fulfillment • Field-support operations

  30. Thin Clients • Computers connected to a server in a network and have no hard drives • Thin-client sales grew 46% from 2004 to 2005 • Advantages • Support telecommuting • Better security • Easier administration • Faster and easier backups • Efficient disaster recovery • Less expensive • Can cut costs up to 70% • Thin client model has 35% to 40% lower TCO overall • Centralized data

  31. Thin Client Outlook

  32. Thin Client Computing What is the most compelling business value case for thin client computing?

  33. Personal Computers • Demise of the Desktop? • Laptop to Desktop ratio in corporations • 1 in 5 in 1999 • 1 in 3 in 2005 • 1 in 2 in next few years • Why? • Mobility! • Outside and inside of workplace • Changes in work habits • Used on the road, in the home, into meetings • Facilitate collaboration as well as email access • Wireless connectivity improvements • Battery life improvements • Price/Performance gap between laptops and desktops has narrowed considerably • Availability of workstation-class laptops for computing intensive tasks like software development and computer-aided design • Laptop reliability has improved • Laptop concerns • Security!

  34. PC Virtualization • PC hardware moved into data center as part of PC blades • Fit into a chassis that can be centrally managed • Several users can share a single blade • Simplifies PC management • Thin client on desktop that functions as an extended keyboard, monitor, and mouse

  35. Servers • Midrange computers in data center that provide applications, web services, and storage to client devices • Defining features • Use faster, multi-core processors than pc’s • 64 bit processors • Often run Unix or Linux as their operating systems • Often deployed in server farms or blades for easy management and flexibility • Less costly than mainframes • Ability to load balance

  36. Mainframes • Large, very fast computers that support the enterprise • Many legacy systems run on mainframes • Known for reliability and scalability • Can replace many midrange servers and can cut IT staff costs as a result

  37. What a Mainframe Looks Like

  38. Mainframe Example • AARP (American Association of Retired Persons) • Members • 35 million members • 76 million baby-boomers preparing for retirement • Central customer database • Can be accessed by • Members • Trading partners • Insurance providers • Retirement communities • Technology • Mainframe used for customer database • Centralized • Member information can be maintained and secured independently of the numerous IT applications that use it • Reliable • Scalable • Will support increasing numbers of transactions as membership grows • Continuously updated • Makes it easier to market products and services to its members • Application-independent • Common interface to the database for suppliers • Standard method for integrating applications with the database

  39. What a SuperComputer Looks Like Terabyte: A thousand billion bytes or a thousand gigabytes Gigaflop: One billion floating point operations per second

  40. Corporate Supercomputing • Ping Inc., golf club maker • Uses supercomputer to run simulations of golf club designs • Has drastically reduced development time • Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co. • Uses supercomputing for tire simulations • Reduces amount of money spent on building physical tire prototypes, from 40% to 15% of the research and development budget • Supercomputing also supports • Digital animation • Bioinformatics • RFID chips and the huge databases they create