Education in the United States & No Child Left Behind Marc McGuigan Physics Education Forum Monday, April 23, 2007
Outline • Education in the United States • How is elementary and secondary education funded? • What is the role of the federal government? • NCLB • What is NCLB? • Components of NCLB • Controversy • What should be done?
How is elementary and secondary education funded? Total U.S. Expenditures for Elementary and Secondary Education Source: Department of Education www.ed.gov
How is elementary and secondary education funded? Annual Secondary Education Expenditures per Student Total Expenditures per Pupil (for Fall Enrollment) Source: Department of Education www.ed.gov
The Role of the Federal Government • United States Department of Education • Secretary of Education – Margaret Spellings • National Education Budget $69.4 million (2006) • Federal government provides about 8.5% of public school funds, the rest of the funding comes from state and local taxes. • In FY 2004 the federal government gave $24.3 billion to states to implement NCLB (40% increase from FY 2001) • In FY 2004 federal Title I funding was $12.34 billion
The Role of the Federal Government Federal Spending Under the Elementary and Secondary Education Act No Child Left Behind Funding: 2002-06 Source: Department of Education www.ed.gov
The Problem • “Studies show less than half of those who do graduate are ready for college-level math and science.” • “Although U.S. fourth graders score well against international competition, they fall near the bottom or dead last by 12th grade in mathematics and science, respectively.” Source: No Politician Left Behind. The Wall Street Journal Editorial Page. February, 15, 2004. http://www.opinionjournal.com/editorial/feature.html?id=110004698 Source: Department of Education www.ed.gov
The Problem Percentage of Twelfth Graders Proficient in Science As the U.S. Commission on National Security in the Twenty-First Century reports, "More Americans will have to understand and work competently with science and math on a daily basis . . . the inadequacies of our systems of research and education pose a greater threat to U.S. national security over the next quarter century than any potential conventional war that we might imagine." The longer students stay in the current system the worse they do. According to the 1995 Third International Mathematics and Science Study, U.S. fourth graders ranked second. By twelfth grade, they fell to 16th, behind nearly every industrialized rival and ahead of only Cyprus and South Africa. Source: Department of Education www.ed.gov
What is the No Child Left Behind Act? • A federal law that reauthorizes many federal programs (Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965) • Passed by the House of Representatives by a vote of 381 – 41 on December 13, 2001 • Passed by the Senate by a vote of 87 – 10 on December 18, 2001 • Signed into law by President Bush on January 8, 2002 • 670 Pages!!
No Child Left Behind FY 2006 Budget $37.6 billion K-12 Education • ESEA, Title I: $13.3 billion • IDEA (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act), Part B, Grants to States: $11.1 billion • Improving Teacher Quality: $2.9 billion • 21st Century Community Learning Centers: $991.1 million • English Language Learners: $675.8million • Impact Aid: $1.2billion
No Child Left Behind Federal Grants to States for Special Education Title I Grants for Disadvantaged Children Source: Department of Education www.ed.gov
Title I, Part A - Tests • Develop state standards in math and reading/language arts (not new) and science standards by 2005-2006 • By 2005-2006 states must implement assessments in reading and math every year in grades 3–8 and once in grades 10–12 • By 2007-2008 the states must administer science assessment at least once in grades 3-5, 6-9, and 10-12 Source: Department of Education www.ed.gov
Title I, Part A - Reporting • States must disaggregate test results: • Gender • English proficiency • major racial and ethnic groups • migrant status • Disability • status as economically advantaged • States must make available test results to school districts before the beginning of the next school year • 4th and 8th graders in states must participate in the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) to evaluate state academic standards • State Report Cards • School District Report Cards • Annual State Report to the Secretary of Education
Title I, Part A – Adequate Yearly Progress • States must define adequate yearly progress • States must review the progress of schools receiving Title I funds • If a school fails to meet adequate yearly progress for: • 2 years • “in need of improvement” • Students given the option to transfer to another public school • School must spend 10% of Title I Part A on professional development that address problem • 3 years • School must allow low-income students to receive supplemental educational services with Title I funds • 4 years – Corrective Action (one of the following) • Replace staff • New curriculum • Decrease management authority • Appoint outside exert • Extend school day or year • 5 years • Initiate plans to restructure school
Title I, Part A • Highly Qualified Teachers • State certification • Bachelor’s degree • Subject area competency - New middle and high school teachers • Academic major, graduate degree, coursework equivalent to an academic major, advanced certification credentialing • State exam • Implement practices based on scientific research
Title II “The National Science Foundation and the U.S. Department of Education will provide an estimated $1 billion over five years for results-oriented partnerships between local districts and universities to bring urgency, tested methods, and high level expertise to rebuilding math excellence.” Source: Department of Education www.ed.gov
Controversy • National Education Association and the American Federation of Teachers are critical of the NCLB Act • May 3, 2005 Utah governor, Jon Huntsman signs a state law that allows Utah districts to ignore components of NCLB
Unfunded Mandate • Argument Against NCLB: • The federal government does not provide the funding necessary to implement the mandates outlined in the NCLB Act • Education is a state and local issue not a federal issue. • Opposing Position: • The federal funding of education has increased in recent years • It is not clear whether increased spending improves the quality of education • A state does not have to implement the components of NCLB. It only has to implement NCLB if it wants to receive federal education funds.
Teach to the Test • Argument Against: • Teachers and students spend time on certain topics at the expense of other interesting topics. • Administering tests takes away class time. • Tests are not a good indicator of a school’s performance. • Opposing Argument: • Tests can gauge if students are learning the necessary material. • Tests allow parents and administrators to compare schools within a given state as well as identify schools that are failing. • Tests provide accountability for education funding.
Adequate Yearly Progress • Argument Against NCLB: • There is an incentive to set expectations low. • NCLB sets unrealistically high standards so that many schools fail, federal education funding drops, and the Department of Education is eliminated. • Opposing Argument: • AYP Reports allow students and their parents to identify failing schools and if a student is in a failing school NCLB gives he/she the opportunity to receive additional services or transfer schools.
References • National Center for Education Statistics, http://nces.ed.gov/ • No Child Left Behind: A Desktop Reference, http://www.ed.gov/admins/lead/account/nclbreference/reference.pdf • Frequently Asked Questions about No Child Left Behind, http://edworkforce.house.gov/issues/108th/education/nclb/nclbfaq.pdf • No Politician Left Behind. The Wall Street Journal Editorial Page. February, 15, 2004. http://www.opinionjournal.com/editorial/feature.html?id=110004698 • Highly Qualified Teachers. No Child Left Behind. United States Department of Education. http://www.ed.gov/programs/teacherqual/guidance.doc • Wikipedia