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European State-system

European State-system

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European State-system

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  1. European State-system Augsburg-Westphalia-Viena-París & the Twenty-First Century

  2. The Empire, by definition“The Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation”, in 1648 • The settlement of the Wars of Religion (and, incidentally the end of Spanish Hegemony in Europe)

  3. A Giant Mish-Mash of sovereignties and suzereignty • The Simplified Version • The old schoolchild lesson • “In 1789, there were 1.789 independent entities in the Holy Roman Empire”

  4. The steps of Statehood -1- • The Peace of Augsburg 1555: “Cuius regio, eius religio” • Never trust sources: What about Transylvania?

  5. The Peace of Augsburg, 1555The end of the Medieval dream of world empire of Charles V • The limits of Imperial power

  6. Seen from the Imperial, Habsburg side

  7. The steps of Statehood -2- • The Peace of Munster and Westphalia, 1648: the generalization of the concept of independent sovereignty

  8. Westphalia, 1648 • The mutual recognition of sovereignty limited by frontiers and the right to full internal affairs

  9. Leo Belgicus (United Provinces)wins the Eighty Years’ Waragainst SpanishCrown(1568-1648)

  10. A Happy cliché for a new maritime power

  11. Winners & losers • Dutch East india Company Spanish Burgundy Flag

  12. Siege of Viena, 1683The effective end of Ottoman powerJohn III Sobieski (1629-1696), Elective King of Poland, the superhero of Christendom

  13. BUT SOON THE POLISH COMMONWEALTH (Poland-Lithuania) WILL CEASE TO BE A MAJOR POWER, ALONG WITH SWEDEN AND THEOTTOMAN EMPIRE

  14. Karlowitz, 1699The Turks begin to retrocede in Europe

  15. Peace of Utrecht, 1713Ends War of Spanish Succession • Losers> Old empires • Spain, • Sweden, • Poland • Ottomans • Winners> New Powers • Russia • Prussia • Austria

  16. The Sad Case of the Catalans1714The Archduke Charles; Rigaud’s rendering of the piercing of Barcelona’s defenses; a romantic, patriotic version for Catalan consumption

  17. The “SUCCESSION WARS”The uncounted “War of English Succession” 1688<<<< English and Scots Revolution in the Seventeenth CenturyExecution of Charles II Stuart, 1649; James II Stuart overthrown in “Glorious Revolution of 1688”; Old Pretender, born 1688, James Edward Stuart; “Bonnie Prince Charlie” Charles Edward Stuart; William of Orange (“Good King Billy”) and Mary II Stuart

  18. Hereafter,British “Balance of Power” • British composite Monarchy up to 1707 • Britain plays the field, always against France, or whatever strongest power on continent

  19. Crown of Aragon submitted to royal authority, 1707-1716Regne de València i l'Aragó: 29 de juny de 1707. Mallorca i les Pitiüses: 28 de novembre de 1715. Principat de Catalunya: 16 de gener de 1716.Battle of Almansa 1707

  20. Scotland submitted to royal authority, 1745Battle of Culloden; End of Jacobite threat to Hannover dynasty

  21. DYNASTIC STRUGGLES • Conflicts for control of Crowns bring down old powers

  22. Franco-British maritime struggle worldwide, 1689-1815

  23. New Powers:France wants continental primacyfrom Louis XIV to Napoleon IEXPANSION AT THE EXPENSE OF “SPAIN”Roussillon to French Crown, 1659

  24. New Powers: Prussia • The new model of a modern military State

  25. The Partitions of Poland • 1772, 1793, 1795, till Poland disappears from the map

  26. Revolution brings MAXIMUMFrench expansion, 1789-1814

  27. Congreso de Viena 1814-1815 • EL RETRATO DE LOS POTENTADOS Y NEGOCIADORES

  28. 1815-1985 • En el Congreso de Viena, España sale de Europa • No vuelve a participar en una guerra general europea • No entra ni en la Primera Guerra Mundial 1914-1918 (Portugal sí), ni en la Segunda Guerra Mundial 1939-1945 .Spain signs EU treaty 1985, enters as member 1986

  29. España, foco liberal hasta 1823 • Ocupaciones francesas 1808-1814 y 1823-1828

  30. 1820 Revolutions in Italyand Spanish 1812 Constitution • The notion of “Liberal” and “Patriot are generalized in Europe by the Spanish struggle of 1808-1814. • In 1820, liberal revoution in Spain spreads to Naples and Turin

  31. European Statehoodafter 1815

  32. Statehood and Diplomacy • Diplomacy= States talk to States (not chats among dynasts and their ministers) • Consular service recognized: how individual “private persons” talk to States; but also how States talk to “non-States” • Military becomes State service, although formally “to Crown”, who heads the “Nation” • The Russian imperial alternative

  33. Liberalism and Democracy • A written or unwritten constitution? • By popular sovereignty or granted by the monarch? • Who is ultimate depository of sovereignty: monarch or parliament? • Who gets to vote? Who gets to be elected? • Empires, United kingdoms, United provinces or republics

  34. The map changes 1859-1871big entities with internal divisionsMonarchical federalism as norm

  35. British Empire, 1914

  36. Turkish suzereignty and autonomy in Europe up to the Balkan Wars, 1911-1914

  37. PARIS PEACE TREATIES, 1919-23and the “Cordon Sanitaire” • LOTS OF LITTLE REPUBLICS WHERE BEFORE THERE WERE A FEW EMPIRES

  38. The “New Europe” • Another perspective

  39. Danish autonomy for Iceland, 1918 • Autonomy is a new version of suzereignty, adapted to circumstance of popular sovreignty

  40. Micro-states and autonomic régimes in Interwar Europe: saome “hotpoints”Fiume, Vilnius, Memel, Danzig, Aaland islands

  41. Free City of Danzig, 1920-1939under league of Nations supervision

  42. Intervened areas of Germany

  43. Catalunya autònomadins la II República espanyola, 1931-1939